2019 Genealogy Fair session 5: Discovering and Researching Bureau of Indian Affairs School Records

Welcome back to the 2019 Virtual Genealogy
Fair! If you are following along from home, this
is session number 5. The lecture is for the experienced skill level
and entitled, Discovering and Researching Bureau of Indian Affairs School Records and
our speaker is Cody White. During this session, he will describe boarding
and day school related records, both for individual students and schools in general, that are
found in Record Group 75 Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Mr. White is an archivist with the National
Archives at Denver and Subject Matter Expert for Native American Related Records. I am turning the broadcast over to Cody White.>>>Thank you. Welcome to everyone watching live and welcome
those in the future as we are recording this for prosperity sake. We are now live. It is high noon in the mile high city. I want to thank everyone for tuning in and
listening to me talk a bit today on BIA records. Next slide. Slide number two. Let’s go over a bit for what my plan is today. I would like to start with a brief history of bureau
of Indian affairs, what we will call BIA for short and it’s education efforts over the years. We will look at the types of schools American
Indian children attended, the types of records generated, restrictions on certain records
and those files that no longer exist. Then we will look at what’s in student case file
throughout the years. We’ll examine what can be found in administrative records. Then we will wrap it all up with a research
example before finishing with how to start your own research and what resources are available
online. Next slide, please, slide number three. What is the BIA? While it’s predecessor agency dating back to nearly the start of the U.S., the bureau of Indian Affairs was formally created in 1824 by the Department of War to handle relations with native populations as the country to pressed westward. A few decades later the bureau had evolved into its own
agency under the purview of the newly created Department of Interior where it remains today. The structure of the agency has varied over
the years with super-intendencies covering entire territories giving way to individual agencies, subagencies,
substations, all created to administer to a particular tribal nation or multiple nations on one reservation. I will mention agencies a lot today and that’s
what we are talking about. A local office that working directly with one
or many tribal nations. For example,the Red Lake Agency in Minnesota
administers the Red Lake reservation, home of the Red Lake Chippewa. Later the super-intendencies were brought back in a fashion as area offices
to manage the various agencies under geographic location. As one can imagine, relations between the
agency and the tribal nation they administer have have ebbed and flowed, more often ebbed as we will
see today. Next slide, please. Slide number four. The primary connection between the government
and various tribal nations, the BIA features a pretty tortured history. It is from one such dark chapter, that of
drive for assimilation, that BIA school emerged from. Let’s go back even further for a minute to
show how the idea of education has been floating awhile. Missionaries were embarking on education efforts even before our country was founded. William and Mary in the early 1700’s had one such program. And in 1819 the Federal Government first made funds available to support missionary schools aimed at the native population. Five years later there were 32 missionary
schools educating nearly 1,000 native children in the east. The BIA though at this time having moved on
largely from the trading focus with the factories were now engrossed with removal of the east
and deeply pushed to the west and full concern itself with education efforts. Next slide, please. Slide number five. That brings us to the mid-1800’s, the treaty era where the Federal Government signed and ratified 377 treaties with various tribes. These including ones seen here on this slide
are in our holdings and recently the focus of preservation and digitization program thanks
to an anonymous donor and all available online via our online catalog which we will touch on
more in a bit. But I digress. It was from in many of the treaties BIA run schools were established as text would clearly call off the creation of school or education programs. So within the spate of treaties in the 1850’s came the
first on-reservation boarding school at Fort Simcoe on the Yakima reservation which opened in 1860 and was in operation until 1922. Next slide, please, slide number six. Which brings us to the assimilation era. By the late 1870’s, this policy that has been kicked around for decades had taken firm root in the BIA and dramatically altered the lives of American Indians and what was left of their land. With tribes already forced on to reservations through the treaties, the new movement pushed further contending that if American Indians adapted European style
clothing, English language, institutional education and the concept of land ownership
and farming they could better assimilate into the population at large. In conjunction it was at this point we see
the first non-reservation boarding schools. The most well-known researched written about
and referenced of which is the first, The Carlisle Institute in Pennsylvania. In operation from 1879 to 1918. The BIA was ruthless in stocking these schools with students. So much so that in 1885 Congress had to pass
a law forbidding the taking of kids without parental permission and then later specifically
the tactics of withholding rations to force parents to give up children. Even seeming progressives like Estelle Rio up in Wyoming, an early champion for women’s rights, as superintendent of Indian schools from 1898 to 1910 espoused the common view that American Indians were racially inferior. Though in these two school images from schools thousands of miles apart we see prime examples of the assimilation movement. Notice the uniforms. The Euro-centric art they are creating. There are many great books, memoirs, essays out there
that well document this era and are worth checking out. Next slide, please. Slide number seven. The off-reservation schools began faltering by 1920 though. With attacks from both sides. One side argued they weren’t assimilating the
children well enough and as the other side simply pointed out they were cruel. The few that remained were able to be pickier about students. Students had to apply and schools shifted
from the militaristic sort of industrial education to more liberal arts. Though vocations were still taught and encouraged. The 1928 Merriam Report which deeply, deeply criticized the BIA education efforts and helped usher in the Indian new deal in 1930s, further forced schools
to change, numerous schools closed in 1930s while others, most notably the Santa Fe Indian
school, embraced or started to embrace native culture and fostering native art. So here on this slide we see a 1935 photo from the Stewart Indian School school grounds right
outside Carson City, Nevada and the uniforms that are long gone. Jumping ahead to 40 years, the Cherokee Central
Elementary school classroom looks a no different from a regular public school. Now, side note, this school today is, in fact,
tribally run. In 1962 the BIA shuttered all the day schools on the … boundaries, the land the eastern Cherokee bought in early 1800’s and opened the central elementary school and
1990 it was turned over to the tribal council to run. Speaking of elementary schools, the public ones,
another education trend in the 20th Century was the increase in native children attending public
schools, which saved the agency money and saved it from criticism. Yet were no less assimilating. This is documented in the blistering 1969 Senate report
on American Indian education, which as timeframe about where this presentation will end, as
our BIA collection here at the National Archives starts to taper off at that point. With more recent records still with the agency. Next slide, please. Slide number eight. Let’s dive into the types of schools and start
with the most well-known, the non-reservation boarding school. These were built apart from reservations, often at former army fort sites and operated independently of BIA agencies, reporting directly to the BIA commissioner
and at times as seen in both Michigan and New Mexico, superintendents of these schools would also be
put in charge of nearby BIA agencies. For these reasons these schools alone will often
have their own dedicated records series in the collection. And are the most research and referenced. The student
body was also often diverse with students from variety of tribal nations. Speaking of Michigan here is the Mount Pleasant
school seen on this slide in operation from 1893 to 1934. Next slide, please. Slide number nine. The reservation boarding schools were those built
on the reservation. These are the earliest of the boarding schools
and it was actually from them the idea that educators needed to remove the students even
further from their people to fully assimilate them. that the non-reservation schools emerged from. Yet these schools continued along side they were run
under the respective BIA agency so while there can be dedicated series to be found, often the records
will be mixed in with general records as we will see. In this slide we see a student body photograph
from the Cherokee boarding school. in operation from 1890 to 1954. Next slide, please. Slide number 10. Day school were by far the most numerous and least
controversial, given they were based on traditional concept of a student going during the day and returning
home at night. As BIA education efforts were standardized
these schools became sort of equivalent to elementary schools, feeding students in either boarding
school or local high schools and you could have dozens and dozens on one reservation split up per reservation district, for example. In this slide we see a shot of students down
in New Mexico. Along there was an inquisitive deer off to the left. Important to note records for individuals
attending these schools often move with the student along to their next school. So strictly day school student case files often are rarer find. As was the reservation boarding school records
of these schools are usually mixed in with general agency records. We will see that later in the presentation. Next slide, please. Slide 11. Mission schools as mentioned earlier were
not run by the BIA but are often erroneously thought not to be documented in our collection. Though many early on were boarding school but dropped the aspect. The cost were high and they couldn’t retain students so they largely switched to the day school model. And while there’s not the level of detail we have for other schools, Mission schools were required to submit monthly
reports to the respective agency in which students were there, attendance, dates and like. So depending on the agency these were sometime
saved. Many of the schools as with the accompanying churches are deep in tribal land. Part of the allotment process during the assimilation era agranted allotment to school and churches. One such example, St. Ann’s Indian school in North Dakota seen in this image from the holdings, still educates Turtle Mountain Chippewa children today and is still open. Next slide, please. Slide number 12. If an Individual you are researching doesn’t show up in
any BIA school records, there’s a strong chance they simply attended a public school which
shouldn’t be looked as being superior to BIA schools. The assimilation aspect was just as acute given
the curriculum and prejudices. The number of students attending public schools really took off around 1920. Here, 10 years later, on this slide, we could
see snapshot from just one reservation of how many students were attending each type of school
and over half were at a public school. Again, as with mission schools the local BIA agency required reports from public schools so if these were saved one can find proof of attendance and some limited information. You see public school records come up a lot
in financial files. Reservation are exempt from property taxes. Some school districts required to be BIA to
pay for each student, setting off complicated formula for that exact cost. This image here from the Library of Congress,
it is simply the best image I could find for an early 20th Century rural school. Native children probably didn’t attend this one. Its a few hours from the Flat Head reservation to the east and Couer d’Alene reservation to the southwest. Next sslide, please. Slide number 13. For a visualization of school locations and
how they changed, I want to show you a couple maps. So next slide, please. Slide number 14. Here are the schools in1899 both types of boarding schools are marked and day schools are simply numbered. So indulge me for a second, take a look at Colorado. You see two non-reservation boarding schools
noted. Grand Junction and Fort Lewis. Now with that let’s jump ahead 20 years. Next slide, please. Slide number 15. 1919 now look at Colorado again. Those two schools are long gone and now there’s
only a new reservation boarding school on the southern Utes land. As mentioned earlier this was emblematic nationwide
the closure of schools throughout the years. And it leads us to a records problem that I like to call
— next slide, please. Slide number 16. Lost schools or at least that’s at least what
I call them. As I mentioned before non-reservation schools
were sort of their own little island reporting directly to D.C. The rule-of-thumb I seem to have find if they
close before World War II the records of the school were often not saved. What remains is spattering and various general
BIA files. Some agencies at different time periods, like the
Navajo agency and the Wind River agency compiled student case files from all sorts of schools across
the. country of all reservation children. And so case files from lost schools can show up that way. Agency reports on who they send, agency student census or annual and statistical reports into
D.C. are all the additional sources with activity of the lost school. In this slide we see some records from one such lost school, the Genoa Boarding School that was in Nebraska closed 1934. It’s Graduation commencement program can be found
New Mexico’s Charles Burke school records and list of students found in Montana Flat Head
agency records. Often in these cases too local institutions
and colleges will work to assemble what little documentary record is left on the school, as well as collect oral histories and whatnot. So it starts creating more localized history for them. Next slide, please, slide number 17. Before we go any further in to our talk today in to student case files, let’s detour quickly to restrictions. General school and agency records typically have few privacy restrictions given their age but that is not the case with student case files. Privacy laws are in place to protect an individual. There can be information that isn’t the most
flattering or whatnot in the files. So even with those old enough to be open,
bear that in mind when researching, but really, they were kids. Kids often in horrible places, horrible situations. I myself got in trouble in the tenth grade. Convicted of obstruction of justice ended up on probation so such trouble or disciplinary records are hardly indicative of the individual. Generally speaking a student case file is
closed to the public for 75 years after record creation. As long as the student is alive, only they
or someone with power of attorney can access it. If a student dies that restriction ends. This can be proved with a death certificate or given that later records have social security numbers death index. But it is on the researcher to prove it. Many student case files series are mixed with dates
so entire series is closed to blanket reference until all the files are older than the 75 year
restriction. The case files used in the rest of this presentation
today are all open either because they are old enough or unfortunately are from students
who passed away. Next slide, slide 18. One more stop before we dive into the student
case files. I want to talk a little about names. In the early years a big part of the assimilation
process was assigning of English names. Dissertations have been written on very topic. I won’t dwell. But to say that school records can be useful tool in reflecting this where one can see what was changed and better help other with genealogical useful records. Here we see an excerpt from a list of students showing the assigned English name. Later in history names also present a roadblock of sorts for research, especially in tribes not used the idea of surnames so generic ones, meaning son of or grandson
of are created and unfortunately given high mortality rate, even into the 20th Century caused children shifting
around and acquiring new surnames. Lastly you have the possibility of incorrect,
different spellings by official, shifting a family and misspellings are both seen here on this slide. All four of the records are for the same Betty. All these issues can add wrinkles in researching. With that caveat lets now look at some actual student
case files. What one an find in the boarding school case files
up through the 1970’s. Next slide, please. Slide number 19. So the earliest student case files, they are not
hardly that, when you can find them. For some schools like Albuquerque Indian School opened in 1881, fires during the history destroyed early records. Here is one for Francis King who came from
the Oklahoma territory to Carlisle. This is it. There’s scanned biographical info, how long she was
there and follow-up form on what she did after school. Throughout the history of BIA schools they
were really big on learning what a student did after the school which can be useful in learning
who they married, where they moved and such. Next slide, please. Slide number 20. Now at the turn of the Century you start to see
more records saved, medical records,applications for the non-reservation schools outing forms where the students went and
how they were, correspondence, detailed grades, promotion records, financial records start
to appear and usually in regards to travel to and from the school and that’s the topic
of the handwritten note down at the bottom of this slide where Ramona was given permission in 1918 to go home for Christmas. Elsewhere in her file was letter from 1917
where the school superintendent forbid her from going home that Christmas, her Pueblo only roughly 35 miles due west of Santa Fe. he wrote that no student should go home for Christmas. Real peach but sadly that was the norm in the era. Next slide, slide 21. Between the world wars we start to see more
standardized forms across schools which dive dive deeper into family and foe asking what siblings
what schools they attended. parents jobs and we see first official student photographs. We also start to see more student Counselor records,
behavior ratings as well as standardized testing results. It never fails, I see some of these and I have flashbacks of Iowa Basics tests we had to take in elementary school. Also present starting around now will be earlier school records from day schools and other boarding schools starting to get more complete glimpse of the entire academic career. Next slide, please. Slide number 22. As we saw to limited extent in Francis’ early
file from Carlisle, we now start to see extensive documentation of post school life. Actual questionnaires that are mailed to students
after graduation to inquire what they have done. In John’s case it was most likely due to the his closeness to the principal as evidenced in the personal postcards he sent here as he trained to become a marine code talker. Side note Werito went on to serve with distinction
in the Pacific earning the Bronze star and Purple Heart in three battles. We also start to see records that are more personal, writings or art work from the students themselves and more detailed transcripts. Counseling records, health records,standardized testing results, travel records however mundane do lead to large files at times. Students in work programs, will have forms detailing the work and location, where at and eval for the work. Harkening back to the early years of the BIA schools,vocational training was emphasized for some students. There was a special six year program for older students 16 to 20 with little or no education. They received basics and vocational training
and leave with a certificate. And this is similar to our last slide with some extras. Here at the Intermountain School we see annual student photographs, yet more detailed academic records and often Soundsscriber disks with student diction exercises. The poor material and recording system means the quality varies and cannot handle many play backs. Our Motion picture branch does have the capability
of attempting to capture the audio so our field units have nothing locally to do so. This era you also may see university transcripts. Again, the BIA was very interested in post school
life and collected such records. Next slide, please. Slide number 24. So for mentions in records of individual students
we talked about the case files. Now lets talk about where you can find additional
files about students. Schools, the types of records and how to locate them. In some cases it is easy. There are dedicated series from a school,
whether attendance ledger or an administrative file series to file from a certain school. Other cases you have to dig into the general BIA the agency files to glean out school related records. BIA agencies used a whole host of filing codes varying
by agency for many years until standard decimal code system was put in place in 1926. With those codes one can narrow their hunt within hundreds of boxes to zero in on school
records that might be of use. It is important to note the records saved do seem vary greatly by agency. What you might find in the Fort Bidwell agency out in
California won’t be the same or as detailed as what you might find in the records in the Shawnee Indian agency records in Oklahoma. Now some agencies will lump all their administrative files together in a massive series and others would split them out in to education, construction, financial Again, it varies greatly by agency. Next slide, please. Slide number 25. Let’s dive into what’s out there. I mentioned reports before so we will start
there. The government, the government loves reports. Here are two examples detailing mission and
public school attendance found in the Fort Bell Masse agency files. under 800 file code of education. In early years the agencies would compile
the these descriptive list of pupils. This one here from 1887 for kids sent to each
particular school. The reports evolved but information stayed
largely the same, as seen in this 1936 attendance report. Likewise even more reports emerged from the
20th Century. Student censuses found in the 54 decimal code or these massive list of all the students overall and schools they attended. Then the were the annual, semi annual, quarterly, monthly — I’m not joking — reports that were generated for the headquarters in D.C. that were both statistical and narrative discussing the
operations and accomplishments of the school. Remember back when I said non- reservation
schools report directly to D.C. It is in these formal reports largely reproduced on
microfilm series N1011 that are one of the best sources to find out about the lost schools we talked about. Back to this slide. This report of the attendance for students of public schools are a boon to find, because if you are researching someone who didn’t go to a BIA school, you might still find where they attended via such reports. As long as you know to try. Again though, It could be a crap shoot if they were saved. We’ve talked enough about reports. Moving on, moving on. Slide 26. Individual health records. They can be found in the student case files. But general health records can also be found. While they may not be perhaps greatest use
to individual researchers, they aggregate information found in them can be a gold mine for academic researchers studying health issues. Schools struggled with illnesses. Outbreaks of small box, measles, tuberculosis, tracoma were constant issues. Here we see a form for documenting student’s
weight. We see a monthly report from the Charles Burke School down in New Mexico. Sorry again for bringing up reports. Unfortunately a plat of the cemetery at
the Santa Fe school. BIA records, especially early on, show how cold the agency could be in these regards. Sending sick students home seemingly before they
passed or demanding parents pay to ship the bodies home of deceased students or else not get the bodies back. Again, this academic topic is better explained and addressed elsewhere but here
is where the records are found. Next slide, please. Slide number 27. Not really pertaining to individuals but found that
researchers often enjoy the records of the school buildings an ancestor attended, where they
were and how they were laid out these can be found in several filing codes within general files. Education matters but also building and construction. This 1861 classroom diagram comes from our cartographic branch in College Park, Maryland and school land plat showing, for instance, where the well water was
good and bad, comes from the Lodgepole School up in Montana. Next slide, please. Slide number 28. As we all probably remember school newspapers or newsletters from our own education, BIA schools were no different. These are very sporadic. Technically speaking they probably should have been considered temporary records but were saved anyways and are now found in our collections. Some schools were good about saving them and some not so much. Our online catalog which we will talk about later is a good place to start to see what might be easily discoverable. For this school in Oklahoma our Fort Worth branch has digitized many of the Indian school
the journal magazines from there and placed them on-line through our catalog. These seen here were saved by the Navajo agency for whatever purpose. Next slide, please. Slide number 29. Sports. Sports were a big part of the BIA school experience. This is really seen in the general admin file with rosters,
photographs, letters detailing equipment acquisition. Here we see the dominating 1933 season of
the Albuquerque Indian school football team as well as the women’s basketball team from
the Rapid City Indian school. Early on women’s basketball was pretty big. The Girls team from Fort Shaw in 1904 after going undefeated across Montana beat an all star team in St. Louis Missouri twice to be crowned the world champions at the world’s fair that year. Next slide, please. Slide number 30. Schedules are another of those items along with menus that one can find in agency records that further flesh out a student’s tenure, what exactly they did and when. Here we see one such daily schedule from the Sherman Institute in Riverside, California.>>Next slide, please. Slide number 31. Then there are the generic photographs capturing student life. Here we have a classroom shot from glass plate negative of the Chiloco school along with 1971 shot, one of my favorites, of a student band up in Oregon at the Chemawa school. Next slide, please. Slide number 32. Then lastly, student art. Found in case files or dedicated folders and scrap books. Here are couple pieces from students here
in the southwest. Next slide, please. Slide number 33. All right. So let’s tie it all up in a research example. Gretchen Ohlerking was born on the Fort BelKnap reservation back in 1922. Here we see her at age three, captured in
the photograph that accompanied her family’s industrial survey entry taken in 1925. Next slide, please. Slide 34. Go the easy route 1st. Your run her name through our online catalog of collections folders and items. You get a student case file hit. Next slide, please. Slide number 35. Which after clicking on and reading you see
the file is located here in Denver at the National Archives branch. You reach out. Slide 36. And we get her student case file. The file is thin but given its from a reservation boarding
school it is somewhat rare. It gives us some good info. Not we have a misspelled name. Oldking, it was corrected. To Ohlerking. Had that not been caught the research would
have been derailed a bit. This is also why went we get a student file
request we come up empty. Often think outside the box and different
iteration in case the name was misspelled. Slide 37. And we also get copy of an application to the Haskell School. This is best source to see exactly what other
schools she attended. Note how she first attended a boarding school, then a
day school before heading to a non-reservation boarding school. These applications are filled with genealogical information on the family as well as personal on the student, such as hobbies and books then enjoyed. Next slide, please. Slide number 38. So with dates and other school names we dig into the Fort BelKnap agency records regarding schools and we find some rosters from her time at the day school and boarding school. Note the 1 week gap in attendance of everyone
at the Big Warm school there on the left. Elsewhere in the folder it was noted the school was shut down due to a measles outbreak. Next slide, please, slide 39. We also get a schedule of what her day was like at the boarding school. Lots to read in two images so I’ll take a break
and note at this point all the slides are available for download and reviewing on the
National Archives virtual genealogy page. Slide 40, please. So researching since she applied to the Haskell Institute
she might have went there. So we go back to our online catalog and look up records
from that school. We see the that they are at our Kansas City facility. Next slide, please. Slide number 41. Turns out she did. The Bismark Indian School she was attending closed. Another of our lost schools. So she transferred. We now have an updated photograph and again the
misspelled name. I don’t know why would you think it was spelled
that way. Next slide, please. Slide number 42. But as sometimes the case, the previous school
records are carried over, so we still get academic snapshot of her time at Bismark seen
here at the left in addition to Haskell seen here on the right. Next slide, please. Slide number 43. We also get the original version of her application. As I mentioned before, the standard four page
application have a great deal of information. Gretchen enjoyed volleyball, for instance,
and reading, Call of the Wild, tale of Two Cities, Indians at Work Magazine which was actually published by the BIA, CCID activities, Smithsonian has a complete run of these on line, ours are a little more scattered, but getting a little bit off topic. Next slide, please. Slide number 44. Gretchen’s entire Haskell student case file is 132 pages largely because of material like this. Memos, evaluations, schedules. Next slide, please. Slide 45. Lastly Gretchen didn’t have much for health
records. Typically you’d find physical and immunization records
but not here. This is about it. It is a doctor’s note regarding a swallowed
pin in her sewing class. Next slide, please. Slide number 46. How does one do their own research? Our online
catalog is useful as we have seen throughout this talk for learning what records series are out there,
which schools have their own collections, where agencies records are at. And it can be searched by keyword, creating agency, date, record group, NARA facility. Feel free to play around catalog.archive.gov. In some cases student case files can be inquired into via phone or e-mail and copies made out to send. But as many of the research avenues mentioned today,
one will need to visit in person at a National Archives location and dig into the records as very little digitzed and
available online. And the work needed to go through the folders is beyond what our staff can do for the public. BIA records are located coast to coast from our grand facility on Pennsylvania avenue to the National Archives in San Francisco. With a host of additional locations
within that 2817-mile span. Next slide, please. Slide number 47. Another good start is our American Indians records
web page where you can learn more about starting your genealogy research, it explains the types of records, provides information on which tribes are covered by
which agency and where those records are at. There’s a page here that lists agencies and
tribes by state, as well as page for BIA schools that have dedicated record collections arranged
by state. We have some big improvements coming to this site in the next year, so please check back. Next slide, please. Slide number 48. Before I open the floor to questions, I wanted pause a moment to tell a story of a former student from the Intermountain Indian School in Brigham City Utah. Tony Dedman of the Navajo nation. Graduated 1964 with vocational training to
be a welder and was widely praised by a school adviser. One year later, however, he found himself arriving in
South Vietnam and 10 months after that he was killed in action in an ambush on a no-name hill along with 11 of his airborne comrades. I would like to dedicate this talk today to
Tony. To all the other BIA school alumni, warriors who
gave their lives in defense of a country that often looked upon and treated them as second
class citizens, if citizens at all. Thank you. All right. So do we have any questions cued up, any questions
live?>>Thank you, Cody, for your excellent presentation. You have a number of compliments. You might be have invitations coming in for some other conferences.>>Here I am battling a cold too. I appreciate that.>>You’re welcome on behalf of our online audience. So far I have like six questions. Start with hopefully easy one. Are there any record of teachers at these schools?>>Yes, yes. That’s another common research topic. We will have people coming in who have ancestors that
were teachers. A lot of school the records and general records
will have letters handwritten by the teachers. Additionally I would like to give a shout-out
to our St. Louis facility. It is not part of the record group 75 but
the employee file for people that worked for the BIA are kept with the civilian records in St.
Louis, our facility there. So if you have ancestor you believe worked
for the BIA, teacher or whatnot, you should reach out to them to see if you can get the employee case
file. From then that you can then see what agency they worked at and get more records to see what the person did.>>Great news. We are going to start on one side of the coast of the U.S. and go to the other with our next set of questions. So you next question is my great grandmother is 100% Native American and believed to have been raised by a white family. Are there any other records for children in New England
about 1842, specifically New Hampshire.>>Earlier records, especially for that era
get a little difficult because at the time they weren’t really concerned about — I don’t want to
same cataloging but listing at the time, the removal era, and whatnot, especially in the east. The BIA hadn’t done the widespread censuses they would do later on. Generally speaking it is a lot easier to pin
down relatives starting around 1880 when the BIA required from censuses from all the different agencies. In 1840 there were only some limited ones going on with the tribes that they were unfortunately trying to push out. With that said it is — might not have a lot
of luck within the Federal records but again sometimes local institutions might have stuff. The earlier back you go the better luck you
will have with local historical sightings and whatnot as government just didn’t keep
as detailed records.>>Thank you for that answer. Next question is about treaties. The question is Is there a link that can be provided to the new online images of the treaties. Specifically looking for the treaties made
in California 1850 that were not ratified.>>Let’s break that into two. I’m drawing a blank. Treaties are kept in a different record group — not
record group, 15, that’s VA. I can’t remember the record group number. They are in the catalog under particular series
in the record group and kind of browse them. For non-ratified treaties, last I heard they
are digitizing that collection. They had some extra funds left over from doing the ratified ones. Non-ratified ones needed some conservation work. Those are in progress. Don’t have idea of timeframe when they come
out. They are being worked on as far as digitization goes.>>Next about specific schools. First question is I did not see anything about
the Shawnee Mission school in Kansas. Was that because it was not associated with
the Federal Government.>>Yes. Usually if it says mission school it was run
by some religious institutions. Catholics ran most of them but there were
other denominations did have schools as well. Again, if you know the tribe that your ancestor
was from, go to the agency to see if there was any mention of them being sent there. As far as the administrative records from the mission schools, they weren’t collected by the Federal Government. In the case of Catholic mission schools, they
did have a bureau of education in Catholic bureaucracy. Those records are at Marquette university
but I’m not too familiar with what they have.>>Great you have an answer about Marquette. Thank you. Going back to National Archives holdings,
are there certain BIA schools that are particularly well documented compared to other schools?>>Yes. By far Carlisle is. I think that’s for two reasons. One, it is the first. So kind of the — kind of the bell weather for
what was to come used as a symbol in that regard and those records are found in D.C. which has
been a little more better described and better accessed. May have a little bias because I am in the west but quite a few other non-reservation boarding schools out here that have pretty extensive collections
that we are really starting to describe and better into and still a wealth of information
to be found out here.>>Wonderful, thank you. At this time I have one more question but
we might have a few more. But for now last question looks to be about
— it is a general research question. It is how do you get pictures of the documents
when making a personal visit to the National Archives?>>Well, you know, even short time I have
been here, it has really shifted. You can bring in your own — in the field
you can bring in own laptop and scanner, but most people now are simply taking them with
cell phones. As long as no flash, there’s really no problem. A lot of older stuff is a little more fragile,
so that’s a better way of capturing the image than say using a photo copier or flatbed scanner. Feel free to drop into any of the regional
facilities, find what you like and make copies or pictures.>>Give the audience a moment to see if there’s
any more questions. You were very thorough apparently. Again, you had a lot of really nice compliments
that came in.>>It is a lot of info. Again, if anybody has questions later on down
the line, feel free to shoot to inquire and we will get you set up.>>Wonderful, thank you. As Cody said if you have questions later please
send an e-mail to [email protected] and please reference Mr. White’s session. Videos and handouts will remain available
after the event from this YouTube page and from the Fair’s web page.

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