A BRIEF LOOK AT MATERNAL HAPLOGROUPS: Family Tree DNA mt-DNA explained in genetic genealogy video


Well several days ago I showed you a
video about paternal Haplogroups and so today it is all about maternal
haplogroup. Howdy I’m Andy Lee with Family History Fanatics where we help you
understand your DNA, climb your family tree, and write the story of your
ancestors along the way. We do this through our youtube channel, through
online education, and through books that we write. So if you would like to check
out more of some of the other options you can look in the description below.
Now the paternal Haplogroup was from your father’s father’s father it is
carried on the y chromosome. On the mitochondrial DNA we actually get a
maternal Haplogroup and this is from our mother’s mother’s mother. Now one of
the interesting things about this is both men and women have a mitochondrial
DNA from their mother and so they have that maternal haplogroup from
testing, only males can test to be able to get a paternal haplogroup, so everyone
can test for a maternal haplogroup only males can test for a paternal haplogroup.
Now because mitochondrial DNA is much smaller than Y chromosome or any of your
other DNA it was actually the first to be studied and the first time that Haplogroups
were named. Now the haplogroup naming actually started with A B C and D
it made perfect sense we’re gonna start with the first four letters of the
alphabet and at that time what they were researching is they were researching the
native populations of the Americas and so a B C and D represent Haplogroups
that are found almost exclusively in the Americas.
There are some branches that they have traced back into Siberia and northern
Asia but for the most part all Native Americans in North and South America are
usually one of Haplogroups A B C or D if their mother’s mother’s mother’s
mother was also in the Americas. Now as this study of Haplogroups continued
they just kept on adding on new letters and so it wasn’t in any kind of ordered
fashion, if you remember the paternal Haplogroup video it actually
followed from A through the end from Y chromosome Adam until the
more recent ones. Mitochondrial DNA or the maternal Haplogroups do not
follow this process in fact there’s no relation between the letters of the
mitochondrial maternal Haplogroups and the YDNA paternal haplogroup. So
just because you are one letter in what maternal haplogroup does not mean that
you’re going to be anywhere close to that letter or anything to do with that
letter in the maternal haplogroup. Again if we go over to Family Tree DNA we can
see an interactive portion of this map that we can use to trace our own
ancestry. So we can see as far as myself my mitochondrial DNA where it’s happened.
It started with Eve which is about a hundred and twenty thousand years ago
you’ll notice that this is actually much older than what Y chromosome Adam is.
Adam and Eve when we’re talking about haplogroups and mitochondrial and Y
chromosomes we’re not living at the same time. All these people represent is they
represent the original person who is the mother or father of that paternal and
maternal line of everybody else. There were lots of other people living at the
time and you received DNA from those other people as well but the Y
chromosome and the mitochondrial DNA over time have only been received from
these two people. So Eve is about a hundred and twenty thousand years ago
and that then became haplogroup l1. l1 split off into group l2 and parts of
that group went to populate the rest of Africa. Mine though went into l3 which
started to go into northern Africa almost into Egypt and eventually crossed
the Red Sea into haplogroup N. And you notice that these numberings are a
little bit in order l and then we come to n. Well then the next haplogroup we
go to is R, we’ve jumped several letters, and now R was a haplogroup in the
Caucasus region and Northern Iran Armenia that area of the Eurasian
continent. Similar to the R that was the Paternal Haplogroup but that is really just
coincidence that these Rs happen to be in the same place. After R that started
migrating over into Europe as K and that’s where my Haplogroup k1 I
believe it’s k1 a. I can’t remember k1 a1 it went something like that.
But that migrated into Europe and so we can see that we went from L to M to R
to K so the letters aren’t following along like they were following along
with the paternal Haplogroups. Likewise if we look at some of the
others we see that M was a Haplogroup that went and populated into Australia
and into China. We see that haplogroup B populated somewhat into China but also
is one of the major ones that have populated into the Americas. C
populated up in northern Asia and the Americas. We see that besides l1 going
into the north western part of Africa. We have l3 just going into the western part
of Africa, l2 also going into the southern part of Africa as well. There
are many different groups all throughout here that you can actually trace on and
again the one thing with the lettering in the maternal haplogroup is it starts
with where they started their research not with where the origin of mankind was.
With Paternal Haplogroups they basically followed the origin of mankind and
followed the Haplogroups along with maternal haplogroups they followed the
research it was much easier to do the research with the mitochondrial DNA and
that’s why you see this difference in the Haplogroups. But remember your
Haplogroup naming doesn’t have anything to do with your paternal
haplogroup naming so don’t get those two confused
they’re not related. Now if you have any questions about maternal Haplogroups
put it in the comments below and I’ll try to answer it and I hope that you
like this video and I hope that you’ve liked this series of videos that we’ve
done over the last month but be sure to subscribe to our Channel and click on
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