Apple Tree Diseases – Family Plot

Alright Mr. D., Let’s talk about
apple tree diseases. Where would you like
to start with that? – I guess let’s
start with probably one of the most common
problems that we have and it’s probably one of the
earliest ones in the year, is fire blight. Fire blight is a
bacterial disease. It is common during
cool, wet conditions, which we have a lot of
springs that are that way. And I’m using a
great publication from the University of Georgia. This is the diagnostic,
it’s a pictorial Diagnostic Guide to Common
Home Orchard Diseases. So, I’m going to
give full credit to the University of Georgia. And I just have the
apple diseases here, and fire blight, the
symptom of it that you see, is a, it’s called
a shepherd’s crook. You’ll have a die back from
the ends of the branches due to a bacterial canker
that’s on that branch. And it may be 10, 12
inches, even longer. And the leaves will turn black. There’ll be a crook
that will develop and they will hang on the tree, they’ll just stay on the tree. It won’t fall off. This disease is very
common on pears and apples. And the way you control it, if you have a
history of problems. Some varieties are more
susceptible than others. But if you have a
history of problems then you need to spray
during bloom with, actually twice, early bloom and late bloom, with an antibiotic. This is not something
that’s in your regular cover sprays for apples. It’s Agri-Strip, is one, Streptomycin, and Agri-Strip 17. There’s several
of them out there that are labeled for
fire blight control. So, that’s the way
you control that. That’s got to be taken care
of before you see the problem. When you see the problem,
there’s no need to do anything. Just wait until next year
and try to take care of it. – So, do we need
to prune out then. – You do need to prune out the dead tissue
later in the year. You need to dip your
pruning shears in a solution of one part bleach
to nine parts water to keep from spreading
that bacterial infection to healthy tissue. And, but yes, you do
need to prune that out and dispose of it. Don’t put it in
your compost bin. You need to either burn
it or get rid of it. Another very, very
common problem that will show up
later in the year is cedar-apple rust. We have a lot of cedar
trees around here, our area. This disease spends about half, it spends part of its
life cycle in a cedar tree. When it’s in the
cedar tree the gall, it’s kind of a
purplish looking gall that will erupt into a beautiful
University of Tennessee orange, UT orange structure
that will release spores. And the spores will
travel to an apple tree, and on the apple tree you
have the bright UT orange spots on the leaf
of the apple tree. – All right, so how
do you treat it? – Well, there’s
a couple of ways, if you can cut down
all the cedar trees within about a 10
or 15 mile radius, that will be one
way to control it. You take out the host. But a more practical way
to take care of it is to follow the home orchard
spray guide for apple trees. You spray with a
solution that contains Captan and malathion
every 10 to 14 days, 7 to 10 days actually
during the growing season. And that will prevent
that from being a problem. – Okay, wow. – Another problem which is very common
on apple trees is sooty blotch and fly speck. When I grew up I
thought that all apples were supposed to have
little spots on them. And this disease, or diseases, it’s kind of
a several fungal organisms that cause this, it’s pretty much just on
the skin of the apple. And you can peel it off. If you scrub it off, you
can actually scrub that off. But it will reduce the
shelf-life of an apple. The home orchard
regular cover sprays will take care of that. And that’s, again, the home orchard sprays that
contain malathion and Captan. The next disease I want to
talk about is bitter rot. And it is concentric circles, a rotten spot on the
fruit of an apple tree. It’s caused by Glomerella and it has kind of
these concentric rings like a target. But sometimes instead
of being circular they’re kind of V shaped and it actually
sinks into the fruit and it goes on into the fruit. But again, the home
orchard spray guide, following the
regular cover sprays with a mixture of
Captan and malathion, 7 to 10 days during
the growing season will take care of that. – Now, is that considered
to be a fungus. – It is a fungus. – It is a fungus. – It is a fungal. Glomerella, is the
fungal organism. Another real common
one is black rot. And this is a kind of a brown, starts out as like
a bruised area on the blossom end, or
the calyx end of the apple and then it spreads and it
also goes up into the fruit. It’s Botryosphaeria. I can’t say it today,
Botryosphaeria, but it is a fungal organism and it can be controlled by
using regular cover sprays every 7 to 10 days with a fungicide Captan and then malathion insecticide. You know, I’m throwing
the insecticide in there because if you’re going
to spray with a fungicide you may as well control the
insects while you’re at it. – So with the black
rot and the bitter rot, I mean the food is still edible. – Yes, except in the fruit,
you’ve got to cut it out. – Yeah, cut it out, okay. – You’ve got to cut it out. Unlike the fly speck and the earlier ones that
were just on the skin, this will go into the fruit. And it will cause the entire, it can ruin the entire fruit. And with most of these, the fruit will hang
on the tree, like a mummy,
will hang on the tree. And sanitation is important. You need to pick those
off and get rid of them. Again, don’t put them
in your compost bin. Again, you put them
in the Walmart bag, double bag them, get rid
of them or something, and put them in the garbage. Apple scab is
another very common disease. And it is present on the leaves. Sometimes it’s called
frogeye leaf spot. But it has scabby
lesions on the fruit and it tends to be
more on the skin. But it’s a very common
problem in apples. And it can be controlled,
again, with a regular cover spray
every 7 to 10 days. If you get a rain
and it washes it off, it’s gone, you need to go back out
there and do it again. It can be really hard
during rain conditions. But again, a cover sprays
contain Captan and malathion. White rot is again, Botryosphaeria. It’s the same genus,
but a different species. It causes, and it has depressed soft and large lesions on the fruit and it really will wipe out
your fruit pretty quick. But, it’s more of late season
problem in apples and pears. It becomes soft really quick. Most of the other
rots, the black rot, is kind of hard at first and it takes it a
while to get soft. But, a serious disease,
sanitation again is important. Remove mummified apples
that are hanging on the tree. But prevent it from
occurring with a, by using a home
orchard spray guide, and regular cover sprays
with a material that contains Captan and malathion. And that’s, that’s the main–
– Those are the main ones. – apple diseases that we see. And we see all of these in here in the Mid-South. – I was going to ask you do we have that here. – We see them all in the
Mid-South, we sure do. – Wow. Appreciate that good
information Mr. D. – Thank you.

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