DNA replication, RNA transcription and translation


Hey there Dr. Trant, this is my video for
General Biology 1406, by Luis De La Fuente, upon DNA replication, RNA Transcription and
Translation. So first off, we’ll start with understanding
the molecular base of heredity. So this molecular base is basically represented
by your DNA, and this DNA is basically the information that leads you to your traits. So in this DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid,
it is structured in the helix structure, and in that helix structure, and in the outer
levels are the sugar-phospate groups, and in your rungs of the ladder, your base-pair
sequences. Adenosine pairs up with Thymine, and Cytosine
pairs up with Guanine. So there you have it, your base-pair sequences. So basically how is DNA replicated, how is
the information from the parent to the two daughter cells, so how do they get the same
genetic information. So as said, theres a ladder of DNA, so that
ladder of DNA can be, this is how I’m telling my story. So your replication is the process of how
DNA is replicated. So you have your ladder of DNA, lets pretend
this is DNA, it splits and you use this split part to replicate another DNA, therefore you
can construct another DNA with the same genetic sequencing. So there you go, thats your DNA replication,
but that information can not simply be there, so now this is where your RNA comes in. So your RNA is your ribonucleic acid, it differs
from DNA, rather then Adenosine pairing up with Thymine, it pairs up with a new Uracil,
so A-U, and C-G. So in this RNA you have your mRNA which is
the messenger for that new RNA strand. So this new DNA strand is expressed by this
RNA. So how to get that genetic sequencing/base
pairs and eventually end up with a protein, you have to have your RNA take that information
and take it to a ribosome outside the nucleus, therefore you have your messenger RNA, and
it basically transcribes the information at first, that previous genetic sequencing from
A,T,C,G, now goes into A,U,G,C, so now you have your transcribe of the previous genetic
sequencing. So thats your transcription from DNA to RNA. Now you have your translation. How do you make protein, the final step. So that expression of transcribing DNA to
RNA now leads to translation, so in that translation you have your genetic sequencing that was
transcribed, so rather than A,T,C,G, you now have A,U,G,C, so in this genetic sequencing
you can think of it as a horizontal line, so you can have UAC, three letters, that is
one codon, and you can have another 3 letters which is another codon, and these codons represent
your 20 different natural amino acids, and you have 64 possible codons. That 64 possible codons is a positive side
as we can have a variety of codons for each amino acid. In this last step of translation, your newly
transcribed information from DNA to RNA, when that mRNA meets up with that ribosome it pairs
up with tRNA that basically converts the previously base-paired into amino acids, which make up
protein. So these tRNA that meets up with mRNA, has
anti-codons that pairs up with the codons, remember, 3 letter words, on the mRNA and
that is translated into an amino sequence, and as that pairing of tRNA and mRNA you have
your amino acid bonds, which result in your protein. So thats basically your DNA replication, RNA
transcription and translation.

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