Genetics 4 RNA

Welcome to genetics four. This is Mr. Judd and this is about RNA. RNA is DNA’s helper. It helps take the information within DNA and distributed it to the ribosome which builds proteins. The key words for today are Ribonucleic Acid, also known as RNA, Messenger RNA, also known as mRNA, it is a special type of RNA. Ribose and the RNA bases which are A, U, C, and G. First I’m going to begin by drawing a very blown up version of a cell. This is the edge of the nucleus and inside here is the nucleus. Outside of that would all be cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Inside the nucleus you know there is DNA and DNA is in coiled coils. This only one little bit of DNA. And you know DNA holds information to make proteins. To do that it has to distribute the information. DNA is locked in the nucleus. It cannot leave. So relies on its helper, mRNA to transfer the message from the nucleus out to the cytoplasm where it’s needed. mRNA gets copied or made from the DNA and then it is allowed to leave the nucleus. When mRNA leaves the nucleus it’s gonna go to the ribosome, and I’m gonna draw in the ribosomes here as … a two-parted structure. I’ll label it the ribosome. The mRNA literally leaves the nucleus and then connects to the ribosome where the RNA is read, and remember it’s a copy of the message from DNA. The ribosome reads that message and then builds a finished protein, and it does that by bonding amino acids. Each of the sheets represents a different amino acid. Amino acids can repeat. And this would be a very short protein. The shapes being amino acids. The main point of this video is to compare DNA and mRNA. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. Another difference you’ll see is that in the structure of DNA I have these green circles, but in RNA I have these blue circles. Those are the sugars of this nucleic acids. The green one is a deoxyribose. An in RNA it is replaced with a different sugar called ribose. Robose – and that’s where it gets its name. Notice the phosphate group – the purple – is the same. The other things that are the same included the A – Adenine, the C – Cytosine, and the G – Guanine. Another main difference is that you’ll see a U. And instead of T – Thymine, RNA has Uracil. So Uracil. U stands for Uracil. And is always in the same a place that you would find T. So when base pairing it is always gonna base pair with A. The other thing to notice about DNA is it has two sides; two sides – or double-stranded. And this one is one side. or single-stranded. The other main difference is where to find them. DNA is in the nucleus only. Its only found in the nucleus. And RNA can travel outside the nucleus so you’ll find in the nucleus wher its being copied into – copied from – DNA, and you’ll also find in the cytoplasm. So you’ll find in both locations. To review, The main job of mRNA, which is this blue molecule, is to transfer information from the nucleus were its found in DNA to the ribosomes so it can be used to make a protein. Ribonulceic acid is what RNA stands for. Messenger RNA is the particular type that delivers the message from the nucleus to ribosome. Ribose is that new sugar we found in RNA and they RNA bases are A, U, C, and G.

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