Irish place names with Geraldene O’Reilly


Good afternoon everybody We’re in place names in Ireland this afternoon And on your little giveaways I have provided the townland which is the essential address for your Irish ancestor In other words that’s where he had his feet on a piece of dirt in the ground An Irish place name can be found spelled in several different ways in the original Gaelic and various anglicised versions, and in old English, and in Latin In researching your ancestors in Ireland you need to be aware of the various land divisions as records can be catalogued under various place names The majority of Irish records for genealogist research are arranged by locality And most people within them are identified by the place name where they lived The use of gazetteers, directories and maps, you’ll be able to broaden your research and locate the townland in which your ancestor lived This is going to be a pictorial session because I think personally it’s rather nice when someone tells you about something and you get a little excited it’s rather nice to see where it actually came from Some of this information you might well know but I would like to think that I’m adding a little to it today Ireland is divided into four provinces: Ulster, Connacht, Leinster and Munster These provinces are divided up to cover the 32 counties of Ireland Ulster covers nine counties which include Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan But from 1921, the province of Ulster also covers the counties of Antrim, Armagh, Derry, Down, Fermanagh, and Tyrone under Northern Ireland So we will divide these areas up for you this afternoon The 32 counties are divided into baronies, a land division which often corresponded to ancient tribal or clan boundaries Barony boundaries crossed county and civil parish boundaries Each barony is further divided into parishes, these being known as the civil parishes Each parish is made up of a number of townlands The townland is the smallest geographical unit and there are approximately 60,462 townlands in Ireland A townland can be considered as the rural address of your ancestor Sometimes you will hear someone say the 62,000 town lands I don’t think actually anyone’s actually counted them Your little printout I’ve given you just says 60,000 But this document that I just read out 60,462. So when you’re looking you will know that it is there A diocese is an administrative unit in either the Roman Catholic church or the Church of Ireland administered by a bishop The Poor Law Relief Act of 1838 called for the creation of administrative areas known as the Poor Law Unions for the purpose of a tax collection for the relief of the poor This is the Oxford Dictionary’s entry for a townland Again they say there were over 60,000 townlands in Ireland constituting the smallest recognised adminitrative division This is the baronies that I mentioned between 1600 and 1900 the barony was used extensively by the English administration Catholic parishes were solely for the ecclesiastical purposes and generally were larger than their Protestant counterparts That’s very important if you’re researching Roman Catholic records For the lady that mentioned Roman Catholic records This is John Grenham’s fourth edition It covers all the 32 counties in Ireland It breaks them down into the diocese areas which is a page that I’ve given you in your handout today just to introduce those particular place names It also records the birth, death and marriage records For what survives in each county in each parish This book is available in the Auckland City Library But I would I have only touched on the place names, I would suggest that you have a look at this book for all other reasons The third edition of John Grenham’s ‘Tracing Your Irish Ancestors’ has a section that relates if you’re looking for a parish name and you cannot find it there is a section to the rear of the book that’s really worth having a look at I think this book was getting too big in the fourth edition that it wasn’t carried forward hence I’m letting you know about that one But I wanted to say something here at this point as to what John Grenham says about townlands John Grenham is a very imminent genealogist for Irish research This was very current after I organised my presentation for you but I didn’t want you to miss out on it ‘To foreigners and direct marketeers Irish townlands can seem like something from Alice in Wonderland Where in rural Ireland do people live? In a townland What’s a townland? It’s a place where people in rural Ireland live Their current complaint is that only the postman only understands local place names But why should that be a problem? A townland can be an acre or a thousand acres It can be named after geographical features, or individual families, or legends, or just flights of fancy My favourite examples of the latter are America and Liberty Two townlands in South Roscommon The only certainty is that a townland is a rural area and that it is or used to be inhabited Some good news if you’re trying to find a particular townland is that their ambiguity and imprecision annoyed the English administrators of Ireland in the 1830s So much that the ordnance survey set about nailing down the darn things once and for all They measured, mangled, distorted, and damaged the traditions they were dealing with but like the good Victorians they were, they did it systematically The first published version of their work, the 1851 Townlands Index If you can identify a place in this publication it will appear under the same spelling and the most latest date records It’s certainly true for Griffith’s Valuation the most contemporary of the major sources And the inevitable amount of drift crept in over the following century’ You can see why I wanted to share that So now we have the ‘Genealogical Atlas of Ireland’ Please note here that it’s the second edition And as such I’ve put a note down the bottom for you Can you see that? I’ve used County Limerick as an example here You’ll see the county parishes of Limerick Excuse me just a moment please Since its publication in 1986 a new ‘Genealogical Atlas of Ireland’ has established itself as a key resource in Irish genealogical research Now with the addition of maps detailing the location of Roman Catholic parishes in all 32 counties of Ireland And Presbytarian congregations in the nine counties of Northern Ireland This new second edition moves the book to the forefront of Irish genealogical research Also for the first time ever, this one volume contains a complete geographical picture of the three major religious denominations in Ireland during the middle years of the 19th century This new second edition is not only invaluable for tracing your pre-1864 ancestors in church records But also for locating your post-1864 ancestor in civil records For this whole volume describes descriptions and maps of the parochial and civil administration divisions sources are linked So here I am showing you County Limerick These are the civil parishes and there are 130 names These are the baronies and there are 14 names five dioceses This is the poor law union and there are eight new place names These are the Roman Catholic parishes and there are 65 names All the maps that I just showed you for County Limerick are at the same scale This just to put a little bit of a picture on our talk today is a townland In Old Pallas in Limerick As in County Limerick But it’s nice to see something you might have not accessed I’m led to believe my family lived there I would have to prove it So here we come again about the smallest division In Ireland, the townland At the bottom of this particular slide we’re talking about the ordnance survey completed in 1846 And the ‘General Alphabetical Index to the Townlands, Towns, Parishes and Baronies of Ireland’ This book is in the library here at Auckland And it’s commonly referred to as the Townland index This is what the book looks like. And Susan’s here this afternoon, and Susan was just using it before However You will get home and say well you heard the book is in the library, and you’ll say well I want to access those 60,000-plus townlands, 2000-odd civil parishes, and the 329 baronies This is the website I arrowed here www.thecore.com/seanruad They’re all online for you There’s a little extract I put in here from that particular volume, it’s dated 1861 And the little bit that I wanted to point out was ‘To change the names and boundaries of townlands when straightening of river sources reclamation from the sea, or other circumstances have rendered it necessary The case however will not be numerous and no inconvenience or error from this cause need arise of all the precautions required by the Acts of Parliament be, as they doubtless will be, duly observed’ Now that was to say there would be no changes to the boundaries And I put that in because by the time we get to 1901 there are some changes Here is an example out of the volume We will refer to it as the Townland index You will note here That this heading says Townlands, this is your ordnance survey map, your townland the statute of acreage, the county, your barony, your civil parish, not your ecclesiastical parish Your poor law union And if the census But some extracts have survived That would be the page entry in the record for your census For 1851 Now very few extracts have survived for 1851 However if yours did, or you think it did, that is worth noting This entry here I have put in to show you if you were looking for a place called Doon Don’t just pick the first one that you saw You have to work harder at it So if you had a place named Doon you think ‘Oh great’ But then keep looking up and down There’s several places called Doon And this one This one is by parishes So when you’re going through the book, and remember you’ve got 60,000 or 60,462 townlands The next section is parish So if the name that you had wasn’t a townland and it’s a parish you can read across the same heading to put it in the genealogical atlas and come back to your second edition And all the maps like I gave you for Limerick as an example, you will be able to put together It is very easy But it’s the old story, it’s easy when you know how This one here, is the third section in the Townland index By barony but it’s rather interesting if you come down to the bottom of your page there’s a lovely little précis of information depending how far you want to go to learn about your area just down here summarised at the bottom of the page This is Sean Ruad’s site here the one with the arrow And this is what you would find when you went online and you’d be so excited you’d put the townland name in as it’s on your certificate and generally the New Zealand certificates weren’t actually spelled the same as the place name in Ireland was Very briefly A lady showed me a certificate and it had Emily: ‘e.. m.. i.. l.. y’ the person said ‘My family came from Emily’ Never found it But she had Tipperary If she had gone on here and put Emily it wouldn’t have come up So if you drop this down here where it says ‘Must match exactly’ And you come into this area here It says ‘anywhere’ – there are a couple of other options – and if she’d put Emily in it would have come up Emly, ‘e.. m.. l.. y’ in County Tipperary So this one is your 60,000 names, your parish names and your barony names that you can use at home, I just wanted to show you what it looked like cause you do get excited but you must watch these little entries here That is a beautiful site, we actually have to thank the late Frank Broderick who put that online He called himself Sean Ruad And I think that’s like Red John, so maybe Frank was a red haired chap and loved the name Sean So I’ve put it here along with a couple of other websites, that I’ll leave up there just for a moment that you could use online at home But you’ll notice I’ve put Sean Ruad’s site as the first entry, it is much easier to use So if I may move on from there, I can come back to that at the end of the session if you like This is Patrick Weston Joyce, has been described as a historian, writer, music collector and an outstanding authority on place names An author of many books Origin and history of Irish names of places were published in three volumes, volume one, 1869 volume two, 1875 volume three in 1913 There’s beautiful works in this man’s book And this is what he said I think you can see that from there, or do you want me to read it out? Just very quickly, ‘This is the first book ever written on the subject In this respect I am somewhat in the position of a settler in a new country who has all the advantages of priority of claim but who purchases them dearly perhaps by the labour and difficulty of breaking his way through the wilderness and clearing his settlement from primeval forest and tangled undergrowth.’ And all he was writing was the place names I do like that, I hope you enjoyed that To make it a little easier if you can’t access Patrick Weston Joyce’s volumes You can here access Samuel Lewis’ books He has two volumes Samuel Lewis first published his two volumes of the ‘Topographical Dictionary of Ireland’ in 1837 This esteemed work gives us a unique insight into the early 19th century life within Irish counties and towns Arranged alphabetically by place, village, parish or townland it provides a comprehensive description of all Irish localities as they existed at the time of publication Lewis gives us details about every parish, town, and village in Ireland Those volumes are available in the library here And then you could look at the CD Everyone likes a CD because it’s fast but its very nice to pick up which of those two volumes you desire to find your family They are very well presented and they look old worldly, as opposed to just looking at something on the CD This is an entry from one of Lewis’ volumes, I picked it because it was an area I was looking for in Limerick I won’t go into great detail there, but if it were your parish there’s a huge amount of information here Same with this parish, which is the picture I showed you which was Old Pallas, the parish is called Greane But sometimes it might not have an ‘e’ on the end And sometimes it might be the word Green, if it’s like the chap earlier was saying, they anglicise them This is a beautiful townland map book, it’s in the NZSG library at the FRC in Panmure It was created by the Inner City Trust at Derry, in Northern Ireland This here is all the fiche for the particular parish I wanted You can see at the top here, this time this is how we’re spelling Grean And this was a little map that was provided So those places this is the parish of Grean, and there’s all the little townlands here where they couldn’t fit the word in they’ve numbered it out the side That’s a set of fiche Some are in the National Library in Wellington and some are in the NZSG library in Auckland I’ve never found them anywhere else If anyone does find, I would love to know because between the National Library and the NZSG we don’t actually have the full set and they’re not available anymore When I spoke about the parish of Limerick, and I mentioned Emly This is all those 130 parishes Civil parishes in Limerick This here is Tipperary This little parish here is Emly Now the diocese on your paper The diocese of Emly and Cashel takes in this area here So if you were looking for your Limerick record – this is my parish here Or you were looking for your Tipperary record in this little area here, you won’t find it in the church You’ll find it at the Tipperary Heritage Centre because the Bishop of Emly and Cashel he held onto the records for a while And then genealogists like us, there was pressure brought to bear but he gave them to the Tipperary Heritage Centre and now you pay to get your records However, it’s cheaper than paying your tax at the airport and the ladies at the Tipperary Heritage Centre ensure that they’re giving you all the information that they’ve indexed and catalogued, now over the last five or more years But that’s important that little piece If your parish is on a border with the next county always look in the next county So this record here very quickly Was in 1821 census for the Limerick city and county for the Ryan families Now my good friend John Grenham says you cannot throw a stone in Tipperary without hitting a Ryan And I happen to have a Ryan So I didn’t give up I went tracing my Spellman family and found that this delightful chap that put this together – I’m indebted to Noel Murphy He put my Mr Spellman right here, he didn’t leave it off the family He put it here So was that my connect of the Spellmans marrying the daughter or the cousin or the niece but more importantly it put him in a place in 1821 Now this is the same little map I showed you earlier For the parish of Grean without our little ‘e’ and all the townlands But this is 1821 spellings I’ve highlighted here taken from the previous slide where Mr Noel Murphy put Orions in place in that time But look at the different spellings. I hope that stands out So if you were looking for those spellings on the little map in the ‘Genealogical Atlas’, the second edition You wouldn’t find them spelled exactly the same But a little bit of logic when you’re a genealogist you grab it and you think ‘Well it’s pretty close to that spelling there ‘Is it the same place?’ And you go and get a map and you find that it is So again it’s our little place names, there out there for you to find but they just want to draw you in slowly That being the ordnance survey map, and there’s a beautiful series here in the library There’s the barony name of Coonagh and here’s my little place name, you won’t see them very well here But all the parishes are in capital letters as well and then you’ve got all the little townlands in between However If you don’t view it very well there on that ordnance survey map This is Bartholomew’s map But he calls his the quarter inch maps And here you’ll find all your place names. Again using Limerick as an example, there’s the city of Limerick and you can come out and find all your place names within a radius to each other and here’s your other boundary lines Those are beautiful There at the NZSG FRC in Panmure You put your hands on them Colour seems to bring them more to life But they’re full of names But then you would get those spellings I wanted to introduce this little parish The 1921 Census survives The most beautiful little book But I couldn’t find my family there, it doesn’t matter it’s full of place names And part of the introduction to it, it says The townlands in the census are listed number 1-75 But in fact there are only 73 townlands So they merged two If you remember we looked at Lewis’ ‘Topographical Dictionary’ and I said look at your volumes, and you’ll get little picture Some of those entries will say this townland was absorbed into this parish Or we took three townlands out and they were absorbed over time into this parish So your ancestor might have a document that says he’s in the parish of Crosserlough And he gives a little name and you think ‘Well hang on, there’s only 73 townlands What were the other two that were merged?’ I only put that in there as an example Again you look around Whatever are the parishes that border Crosserlough That’s a beautiful little book and it’s in the Auckland City Library here Again I wanted to put in something just a little bit of colour Those are place names That little sign was on the side of an old mill in Cavan But as you can see it says Milltown But it’s got Killeshandra which is a place I fell in love with but yet to find if my ancestors lived there, this is the Irishness that sometimes comes out And never assuming anything You have the Tithe Applotment Act was passed in 1823 The Tithe Applotment Assessment (I made a little note here) but you can read it there And I’ll summarise by saying Of particular importance with the Tithe books is that they provide details of land and ownership, occupations and valuations for individual holdings Under the names of townlands I’ve actually put up here The National Library on the top line here, even though I’ve put the Census for National Archives for Ireland On the National Archives website you will find the Tithe Applotment records You’ll also find when you go into the records that you can download the page of the original entry And this is what it will look like Again I’ve used County Limerick as an example This is County Limerick and our parish of Pallas Grean These are all the townlands But if you started at the front of the book and all the films are here in the Auckland City Library you will be working your way through them all and at the very rear you would find this index But it was worth going through to have a look at all the entries And this is an example This here is the diocese of Cashel and Emly Maybe they’re going alphabetically And it’s in the parish of Pallas Grean This is the townland and this is a townland here There’s all your occupiers and their land, what it was being classed And how they were going to pay their taxes on it But the point being here’s all these townlands Now in 1823 to 1838 when they were finished being recorded The townlands might be spelled slightly differently However, like the map I showed you, you grab it and go off to prove that it’s yours. Don’t just get put off As Patrick Weston Joyce said he was fighting his way through the undergrowth so to speak to get the spellings out there for us So we see here the official spellings of many townlands differ from those in everyday use and pronunciation Sometimes needed in identifying the official name of a townland The vast majority of townlands containing only a few scattered houses and no villages or towns of any sort Well let me show you This is a beautiful set of 40 volumes and this is the index So if you went into the library either here or the NZSG in Panmure and you picked up your little book and the first thing we all do is we go to the index and it’s not there and you get disappointed Believe me when you pick up this and carry this large book around you will find it’s the ‘Ordnance Survey Memoirs of Ireland’, it’s an index of people and places The memoirs are a uniquely detailed source for the history of the northern half of Ireland immediately before the great famine They were written in the 1830s to accompany the 6 inch ordnance survey maps and incredibly comprehensive index and a little example this is part of an index That index led me to volume 40 and you can see there its 1834 to 1838 I don’t know them all offhand to quote But volumes 38 and 39 cover County Donegal, if you are researching in Donegal these are a gem This one is classed as South Ulster and has a little bit of this parish of Cavan I am going to show you here And why I wanted to show you its Drumloman parish Is that it mentions here under manufacturers and mills These little townland names Now I only picked that page because my reference was for my surname O’Reilly And it had the reference here to the property of Mr O’Reilly at Rockfield Now if that was my Mr O’Reilly I’d be incredibly happy But I’d also want to read about what on earth is going on in this particular parish as well and read about all the little townlands So those are 40 volumes in the library, there mainly the Northern Ireland parishes but that one is for South Ulster Again we’re coming back to townlands and prefixes of the spelling of townlands The name Bally will crop up quite a lot because it means town And you will see here When we move along this ones using the term ‘lough’ It might just say Lough but it’s listed as Ballylough So bear in mind that word ‘bally’ sometimes ‘ballie’ when you get a little stuck for the place you’re looking for I love maps, maps tell you a story The first time I picked this book up, the late Karen Kalopulu I just bought it for the Auckland City Library I thought ‘What did you buy ‘A Paper Landscape’ for? Let me please have a look’ and I fell in love with this book The earliest 6 inch ordnance survey mapping of Ireland was undertaken in 1824 to determine townland boundaries and acreages as a means of equalising local taxation Thanks to the zeal and vision of a small group of military officers and the devoted labours of many soldiers and civilians the survey soon evolved into an all-purpose cartographic record making Ireland the first country in the world to enjoy the benefit of published maps depicting its entire territory at a scale large enough to show every house and every field That is ‘A Paper Landscape’ If you’re just looking at books, pick that one up I had a little more but I’m watching the time This book is in the Auckland City Library It’s older place names A selection of place names found in the 17th to the 20th century Records including modern parishes, poor law unions and registrar’s districts A little example here Again I’ve focused on County Limerick to try and keep a story that you can say well that was my county this is how I would be putting it together A beautiful little book In the back of that book is a lovely glossary The glossary would be helping you with where I have used the example Ballylough This is online And it’s a Gaelic place names website It’s very nice if you want to go back and look into your Gaelic spelling And I’ve made it a little bigger for the lower part of this part here of the demonstration And I’ll just focus. It says 32 counties 61,223 townlands so we’re now between our 60,000 and our 60,462 3508 electoral districts 2570 civil parishes 872 towns 345 baronies 122 villages 106 sub-townlands and 39 fields I’ve added the fields for a little part at the end of this demonstration But the website I have highlighted there quite large Very nice to go on May only take it if you put your Emily in instead of Emly Now for the people that have research in Northern Ireland Aren’t you just lucky These are for the Ulster counties these eight volumes, the County Down, Antrim, Armagh and Fermanagh This is a major series on the place names of Northern Ireland concentrates on townlands names And I’ve actually put the website up here I think if Iook very hard enough ‘Northern Ireland Place Name Project’ But it’s always nice to have an example So for the people that have the manor research this if for you But not necessarily, you could use it for your county as well The study of place names provides a revealing window on the land and its people This major series on the place names of Northern Ireland concentrates on townland names Early spellings of the name discussed have been abstracted from historical sources and these provide the evidence to reconstruct the original form of the name and trace its development down to modern times This particular volume on Fermanagh covers a large civil parish with most lies to the east of Fermanagh But a small portion of which is in West Tyrone again it’s watching where one parish borders another, but in this case it’s one county bordering up against another Well this is a townland in the parish of Kildress in County Tyrone This particular book compiled by the Dairy Youth and Community workshop under the direction of Brian Mitchell Is in the NZSG FRC It’s full of townland maps for Armagh, Donegal, Londonderry or Derry if you prefer and Tyrone It gives a list of all those townlands in that parish And that was the townland map But you could find it online But finding it online looks perfectly alright like that but wouldn’t it have been nice to have got the map that puts them all in that parish you can look at that as your parish map and see where your townlands lie in conjunction to each other This is the first volume in a local history studies, it’s at the NZSG FRC and we’ve got the second book on order This volume contains eight essays by experienced local historians who described the development of their townland over the last 400 years and more The story of each townland is presented in a format which demonstrates how that most valuable resource the extensive range of resources available, and the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland can be used in the study for each and every townland in the province That book is definitely worth putting your hands on if you’ve got a townland in Ulster However if you don’t have a townland in Ulster And you’ve got one in Leinster this is why it’s important to know your provinces Leinster’s a province but look at the counties that are in Leinster But look at the counties that are in Leinster So if you just picked it up and it said townlands of Leinster and you didn’t know, well that’s not mine you would get a very delightful surprise if you’re researching any of those counties Because this is a little example of the Index There’s your area and there’s your townlands And I’ll put the whole lot up because that book’s available here at the FRC in Panmure When I say the FRC, that’s the NZ Society of Genealogists library But not to be left out, if you’re only visiting the Auckland City Library Ulster’s rich and diverse cultural heritage is reflected in its place names which have their origin in many languages including Irish, Scots, English, Old French and Old Norse This book remedies the long standing need for reliable and up to date dictionary of Ulster place names Supplying the derivations and meanings of around 1300 names and the nine Ulster counties I’d like to finish by reading This is the most complete guide to Irish place names published in modern times It explains the origins and derivations of the names of these 3000 cities, towns, villages and physicals features The late Deirdre Flanagan was one of Ireland’s leading authorities on place names A beautiful book And this one, well this is Patrick McKay he calls his ‘A Dictionary of Ulster Place-Names’ But it covers the nine counties of Ulster Not just Northern Ireland, or not just Donegal, Monaghan or Cavan Ulster’s rich and diverse cultural heritage is reflected in its place names which have their origins, as he says, in many languages including the Irish, Scots, English, Old French and Old Norse He says this book remedies the long standing need for a reliable and up to date dictionary of Ulster place names Of around 1300 names, as he says too, in the nine Ulster counties But unlike the late Deirdre’s book this is what Patrick gives us So we can use a little poetic license here We have County Down here, we have Fermanagh, we have Down, County Down but we have Shercock in County Cavan We also have a delightful little map here This is the explaining of Shercock And not just to stop there Here is another delightful little entry Again from County Cavan, from Tullyroe? Tullycoe Oh and I should say here, look at this date And to finish off for the ladies that like the flowers This is a lovely little entry here We have another one in County Cavan, this one’s Derry, Tyrone, Armagh, Down, here in County Cavan Comes up here and tells you Templeport near Tullyhaw That is a beautiful little book. So Patrick’s got a little artistic with his more than what Deirdre did But don’t be stopped from using Deirdre’s book And that was a little map that was part of that book And now we have Sean, well I’ve always loved someone with the name Sean So what does Sean say, he says this book is for you. I Iike that Names of towns, villages and townlands are given county by county and their anglicised form, the Gaelic form, and their meaning So we had enough little meanings with Patrick’s book Sean says this book is for you So, listen to Sean And now what do we have ‘Tipperary 100 Years Ago’. Beautiful little book. I found this at the FRC in Panmure I was looking for a place name called Dromineer It had been spelled at least three ways before I got to this spelling here It borders my little Tipperary map that I put up against Limerick I was looking for my family here So what do we find? Afterwards, after I discovered my place name I find a little book, and I’ve only put up this page Drom, Drum, Droum, Drim Now if I’d had that earlier, well using all those directories But, Drumineer doesn’t actually come strictly alphabetical with Drom so you need to keep going. But this was a worthwhile little book, again that was in the library here Oh! And for County Longford, you’re in luck This beautiful book is in the library here and at the FRC Now this section is County Longford residents prior to the famine And that’s a parish with all its townlands But it says They can’t find the location of this little place here Well goodness me, did it go next door? Did it disappear? I went into the ‘Tithe Applotments’ that I mentioned previously and I found two families were living there in this parish in 1833 So now you would need a really good map to see what happened at the parish Because this was before the famine So before the famine you didn’t have… I’ll re-phrase that before the had the famine you had the ‘Tithe Applotment’ books to look at your spellings To coincide with that County Longford book, here’s the one ‘Survivors of the Great Famine’ But I will only focus on the townlands But if you were looking for your family, these are two beautiful books to put alongside each other To say well, did my family survive? Or what happened to my family? And what townland are they now in? Both are full of townland names There are returners of land or return owners of land This book here, the records were started being taken in Ireland in 1875. The findings of a survey ‘Return of the Owners of Land’ was published in Dublin in 1876 Only those who owned one acre or upwards were given into account into the survey The records were compiled by the clerks for the poor law union for every parish in Ireland in 1875 The returns show the names of the owners in alphabetical order for each county under their province The address of the owner The extent and valuation of his holdings and the amount of the valuation This land valuation is only 10 years from the completion of ‘Griffith’s Valuation’ Perhaps a generation later Or the same people can appear in both surveys It is very easy to use It’s indexed under province But then the provinces are broken up into counties But I’ve highlighted one here This person’s address, the address of the owner of the land, is in England So when you find your entry, don’t just assume I use that as an example Just don’t assume that your person lives on that land. That was rather an important item 21 books have been produced, there’s 32 counties, the latest is County Longford I use this as an example because it had a beautiful coloured cover They’re usually referred to a history and society of a particular county They’re available in the libraries both here and at the FRC And they are really worth reading because they bring you from right up to date, from the times that we have been covering here, right up to date This is ‘A General Topographical Index’ It’s the Census of Ireland from 1901 Now we covered the Townland index that was 1851 and it said there would not likely be any changes to some boundaries Well this little book and it’s been published on CD and a set of fiche It brings in your district electoral division And there’s some little notes here towards the end about the boundary changes And it says, ‘The townlands as shown in this volume represent these denominations in their areas as they stood on 31 March 1901 In the case of the county of Galway however, the areas shown are those in use prior to the last survey by the Ordnance Survey department This information regarding the revised areas not being available before the dispatch of the manuscript to the printer The revised areas will be found in the census book for the county’ We don’t have the census book for the county, which is rather unfortunate it was destroyed in the Four Courts fire ‘Pursuant to the Ordnance survey map (Adjustment of boundaries) Order 1899 of His Majesty’s Privy Council in Ireland The parish boundaries will not in future be shown on the ordnance maps when revised except in the county boroughs and urban districts In future also townlands of the same name which formerly appeared separately though divided only by a parish boundary in which are given in this volume as separate townlands will be shown on the new survey maps as one townland’ Now that’s dated 29 April 1904 But I want you to note, it’s rather interesting It was Robert E Mathison was the Registrar General I’ve put this up here, it’s a 1901 census in Limerick And it’s got your headings across the top here And this is a particular family that’s living in the parish of Templebredon in the townland of Garydoolis Now if you put a map up, I’m not sure if you’ve known this but if you were to click on Garrydoolis, or click on Templebredon you would find all the townland names in that parish and if you clicked on Garrydoolis you’d find all the neighbours living next door to this family of Graces But it was mainly the townlands I wanted to tell you about under each parish name Because if you went into the townland and the spelling wasn’t quite what you were looking for on this occasion you could use the parish name to go into your townland Here’s our Robert Matheson, ‘Surnames in Ireland’ Now you might be thinking, why would you use Surnames when this is a place names talk? Well I want to show you please there are 530 names of registrars districts in this volume with a corresponding names of the unions in which they are situated So here you have your registrars districts, and here you have your unions and that’s in a book on ‘Surnames of Ireland’ Any book that you pick up that’s got a place name in it it’s worth investigating why they’ve recorded the place name Yes, Robert Matheson, I’ll just go back one. It’s ‘Surnames in Ireland’ by Matheson But its Sir Robert Matheson and it actually started off as ‘Recordings of Surnames’ A special report in 1906 was published Now in your little handout today, I’ve put those registration district names Because if you found that name, and you were trying to tie it into a barony, a parish name, or a townland name It’s a poor law union name. So that’s on your map that’s at the back of your little handout It’s introducing those registration districts in the poor law union I’ve found this online, so if you went online and googled perhaps for ‘registration districts’ you might find a printout similar Here we have the townlands in poor law unions Now, this chap in 1997, George B Handran He published a book Townlands in poor law unions It was a reprint of a poor law union pamphlet that was initially produced in 1885 by the General Register Office in Ireland It has an introduction and six appendices relating to Irish genealogical research This is what you would find in that particular book It’s on CD in the library That is the same book but it’s a table of the contents Now, this is my latest theme I can’t stand here and tell you about place names if I don’t investigate them myself I had a little name and I wanted it badly and it didn’t show up This part I will call townland sub-denominations within the official townlands, there are smaller subdivisions such as field and farm names known to the local people But our generations are gone Or else they immigrated here to New Zealand There are also small communities within townlands Not large enough to be towns, these communities have unique names and may only include a few houses So I’ll be very quick here and say these sub denominations within a townland and I put an example for County Limerick They’re not listed in the 1851 which is our townland index. The 1871 and the 1901 townland indexes Sub-denominations may however be found in official records such as civil registration or on the ordnance survey maps of Ireland For this reason examining the manuscript index to the original 6 inch to the mile ordnance survey maps, may be the quickest method of determining in which townland, civil parish, and county an obscure name or a place name is located it is not uncommon for an immigrant to identify with one of these small parcels of ground rather the townland name Now I’m not quite sure if I put up a piece about Patrick so if I could just finish here please This is a note in this beautiful book by Patrick Lynch I love him He says, ‘I like local history and field names are a very important part of our local history I have been interested in place names and their origins for a long time Probably for most of my life My earliest recollection of an awareness of place names goes back to about 1945 when as a young boy I was helping my late grandfather who was also Paddy Lynch to plant cabbage in the garden at our home farm in Broomfield Colling It was a warm sunny day and we were sitting on a grassy bank having a drink of buttermilk which was a very popular drink in those days There was a very striking wood top hill a couple of miles away to the east I don’t recollect if I asked him about the name of the hill or if he proffered the information he told me that the hill was called Ballinacreagach It was many years afterwards that I found out that the name comes form the Irish name Bally na Creagach meaning rocky place or townland For some reason the name seems to have made a big impression on me and seems to initiated my interest in the names and places and their meanings Most of my working life was spent travelling around the counties of Meath, Louth, Cavan and Monaghan’ And that was his entry into this beautiful part of a book about field names I wanted to share that with you because the guy’s passion is in this book and if you were looking for a name that doesn’t appear anywhere else think of townland sub-denominations 1659 The spellings are not exactly the same back in 1659. This was a record of property for taxation purpose and it’s been referred to as ‘William Pender’s Census for 1659’ I want to show you one little spelling here, and the reason I chose these pages, there’s a second one to follow here was the spelling here for our Garrydoolis place has popped up under one of these entries down here But it’s showing you this page here, where, here it is, Garrydoolis spelled slightly differently but enough that you would recognise it However it says that it’s in this parish and by the time we get to 1901 it’s in a parish of its own How are we going for time Gary? Do you want me to wrap up? I have a couple more slides to show Well I won’t go on too much here, but this is the Civil Survey of Ireland 1645 to 1654, if that’s what I got recorded there And I will close, but that is worth having a look at for place names You might say well, how did I get back to 1645? However it’s people and place names And this is a little bit in that book ‘The Baronies in County Louth’ But I will finish here by quoting again my favourite Irish genealogist, John Grenham He said: ‘We love the places because they are where we come from, where the people we belong to are at home The way the land is divided, the peculiar county, parish and townland borders embody much more of human and social geography than economical or physical There are intense allegiances, centuries old and still in force as ever to townlands, parishes, and counties Very rarely to the idea of Ireland divorced from the localities, it should be added At the time of the famine, English observers lamented the reluctance of even the most destitute to abandon their home place and emigration was known as the “white death” As for many emigrants, their home place was a parish or a county, rarely the country as a whole.’ And I thought what most appropriate place to finish on, a place name for a cemetery And on that note, that was my last paper so I hope I have not made you late Thank you very much

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