Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis or PGD is an assisted reproductive technology used for the genetic testing of embryos.
It is a beneficial method because it helps reduce the miscarriage rate. This,at the same time increases the overall pregnancy success rate.
Another advantage is that it removes the need for amniocentesis if the woman becomes pregnant. This is because the selected embryos will be already free from genetic abnormalities.
PGD is used in the following cases:
At least one of the intended parents is a carrier of a hereditary genetic disease
If the presence of a chromosomal abnormality is detected with a karyotype test
Repeated IVF failure
Recurrent embryo implantation failure Recurrent pregnancy loss Advanced maternal age (over 38-40)
Certain cases of male infertility The following are the 4 main steps involved in the PGD process:
Embryo biopsy: 1 or 2 cells cells are removed from the embryo to
obtain the genetic material to tubing are removed from the embryo to obtain the genetic material Tubing: the cells of the embryo are placed in a tube
Analysis of genetic material through PCR, FISH, CGH arrays or NGS: The embryo is screened for genetic abnormalities.
Also, PGD is the technique of choice when the couple wishes to choose the gender of their baby.
This method is allowed in some countries only for medical reasons, for example if a genetic disease is linked to one sex rather than the other. Gender selection for social reasons is permitted in the United States. If PGD is done, it may add up to €3,000 or even €4,000 to the total cost of IVF and/or ICSI. These fees depend on the number of chromosomes the couple wishes to have analyzed.
Other factors influencing the overall price are:
Advanced female age
Method used for the genetic testing of embryos On average, the total cost of an IVF cycle with ICSI and PGD ranges from €8,000 to €9,000.