The records of the English parish church with Viv Parker


Hello everyone its lovely to see you. So we are actually looking at Parish records So why do we? Well they’re actually vital to our research It details births, marriages, burials, and I’m sure that most of you have looked at those at some stage But the incumbents might write about the events that have taken place What the weather was like, whether there were hailstones as big as tennis balls that ruin the crops And that would have an effect on the village, so these are the important things And this is before newspapers, so it is worthwhile The vestry minutes in the church warden accounts tell us about community life Tells us about both the rich and the poor in the village And the parish chest records, they give details on both So what is a parish? Well the dictionary definition: a community of sojourners, meaning they live there It’s the territorial subdivision of a diocese or a bishopric It’s a collection of people who attend a particular church It could be Anglican, after the reformation, or Roman Catholic, or non-conformist And of course you all know that there are Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, Quaker, Jewish and any other of the religions that popped up from time to time From a birth certificate or from a census you may have learnt the place of birth and that’s what you need to look for Well is it a parish or is it a village within a parish? Lewis’ topigraphical dictionary, which is in here probably on CD but it is also now online at no cost so you can look at that at home and that will tell you the details of the parish and its ecclesiastic jurisdiction A good book to use, which is found in here, in the library on the shelves, also in the NZSG is: Phillimore’s Atlas And the reason you use that is it shows the dioceses, so you can see the pink and the yellow The pink is the province of York which is subservient to the province of Canterbury And if people had land in Canterbury, their wills would be probated there this is in the early days, but again if it was on those borders – if they had land in both then you would find that it’ll be in the senior, which is the province of Canterbury So the area covered by a church is a parish Now, it’s called the mother church, where, later on you find that they had to put extra churches either to deal with overcrowded populations, or the fact that the parish itself was too large and this happens in Yorkshire and Lancashire in particular Very, very large parishes, and the people just couldn’t travel from one end of the parish of the county to the other to get there so they created churches called chaples and chapels of ease You couldn’t get married in those churches but you would get baptised and sometimes buried as well but certainly, marriages always had to be in the mother church And an example of this is Manchester Anyone who’s got marriages before 1837, taking place in Manchester they had to get married in Manchester Cathedral for a 50 mile radius and that takes in Northwest Derbyshire and North Cheshire So it’s a very large area and if you can’t find them in those areas, have a look at Manchester So why did people, living within these boundaries, they were required to go to church By law? Yes they were, especially after the reformation, they had to go They had to prove that they were now, not Catholic, but Anglican after Henry VIII changed and broke away from the Holy Church of Rome By custom, because they liked going to church, by inclination, and these varied from time to time The Vicar General to Henry VIII ordered that every parish must keep a register That every Sunday, the parson, in the presence of the church wardens must enter all the baptisms, marriages and burials from the previous week What does that tell you They might not quite remember their name, was it Jack or was it John was it Anne or was it Annabel So errors would occur Failure to comply was going to be a fine of three and four pence and this was to be used, spent on the church, but that didn’t really… there’s no records of that happening Well many parishes just ignored this, they didn’t want this interference from London It was received with suspicion, and so King Edward VI, he re-enacted the Act, it has to be But by 1557 when Queen Mary was on the throne, and of course the religion changed back to being Roman Catholic The clergy were instructed to name the godparents, bless their cotton socks, more information for us and unfortunately, this wasn’t kept on as an order through the ensuing years, but some vicars have and I’ll show you one later By 1563, Elizabeth deemed that the records should be kept in great decent books of parchment so they weren’t on loose parchment papers for anyone to lose or they got ripped or they weren’t on vellum any longer so you’ve got all sorts of, you know velum is the actual sheep skin, so you’ve got bits of leg and they write down the corners and I’ve looked at those in London and they’re just fantastic, but agony to read So, she also deemed that copies were to be made and sent to the bishop at the diocesan centre every Easter and then, that was really interesting because they’re called the Bishops Transcripts so if the parish register has been lost, we have the chance of looking in a bishops transcript And so, it was actually the mandates of 1597 and 1603 that enforced all these laws The records were to be kept in a chest fitted with three locks One for the vicar, and two for the church wardens So all three had to be there to open them and get the records out The chests were also used to keep the church plate in case there was in times of war and battles and goodness knows what, and also the church garments and these are two that are still extant, because not many parish chests have survived but these are two lovely ones, they’re both black and they’re woven, which is just amazing So christenings, marriages and funerals, this is a poor funeral, down at the bottom which you can see the poor family going to mourn their dead We’re going to look at the records, parish registers and a few bishops transcripts and the parish chest records So Civil Registration in England and Wales started on 1 July 1837 When you got married, you were given a marriage certificate and here is my grandparents’ you can see it’s the original First of all, you can see down this side here It’s been torn out of a book that was perforated and you can also see the stamp duty that has been paid on it So they had to pay the stamp duty and then the vicar signs over the stamps to show it was duty paid But if you look at it, all the writing is exactly the same Somebody has filled this in, it is a copy and yet it is the original marriage certificate So where is the original? That is in the parish register And there you will see the original signatures of the bride, the groom, the witnesses In this case there were three witnesses: the bride’s brother, no, the groom’s brother, the bride’s sister, and the bride’s father have signed the one at the top A birth registration in England looks like this So this is a birth registration, it is not what we use as a full birth certificate It has no details of parentage on it But that document will get you through your life, it’s all you need If you go to school, you go to university, you apply for a passport, this is all you need So a lot of people don’t actually have a full birth certificate And a full birth certificate actually shows the parents’ names and that’s why we always get full birth certificates But can we find more? Well, the ideal would be to look for the baptism And here’s the baptism, and I’m lucky because the Church of Jesus Christ Latter Day Saints, The LDS, have put a lot of Lancashire registers online So I can sit at home and trawl through them, at no cost, until I find what I want And so here you will see Edith’s baptism, my grandmother And in the far right, you will see just the rector has signed at the bottom But there are three names above, and they are the names of the godparents So the vicar has kindly told me that Edith’s mother Emma was one of the godmothers, her aunt, Sarah, was another and uncle Herbert Dale was a godfather So yes, from this parish register I have actually found out something more So it is worth it But as we go back in time, we actually get less information Because the rules didn’t apply quite the same: they had to write them in the register but they wrote what they wanted to write So this is from Mappleton in Yorkshire and of course all it says is George Graham of this parish, bachelor, and Hannah Beale, of this parish, spinster, and there’s all sorts of bleed-through and it’s a mess, bracketed together by bands, and the date In 1603, there was a change of rules that deemed that the register, that the clergy had to keep the marriages separate from the baptisms and the burials and so, from 1603, you’ve got to look in two sorts of registers to find them But we do get some interesting information In 1655, this one says “Roland Preswiche and Anne Thorpe of the parish of Ashover (that’s in Derbyshire) was published on three several Lord’s Days in the church in Ashover, from 20 May to 3 June and nothing objected against them by anyone that they may lawfully proceed to marriage which was performed and done” D-u-n. Done. I love it Banns: saxon word for ‘proclamation’ You can get married by banns, you can can get married by licence and after 1 July 1837, when civil registration came in, you could get married in a registry office and they are still today the three ways that you can get married The only change has been that you can now get married in England and Wales, in a building that is, well it’s actually a room, in a building, that is licensed to hold marriages In New Zealand, you can actually apply and you can get married on the beach and in the woods, wherever you want to, on a boat In the sky, somebody’s got married on an aeroplane You cannot do that in England, you still have to be in a room that is licensed So they’re called, banns are called on three consecutive Sundays at Matins, the morning service And if anyone complains, then you don’t get married But always check, even after the banns are called and you’ve got a copy of that, to see if the marriage took place This is the banns, it doesn’t tell you here that they actually got married so you would need to check And here, the vicar has filled in all the details, ready for the marriage: his name and her name, where they’re living, his occupation But it hasn’t got the two fathers’ names but it’s got their fathers’ occupations So they were waiting for the service to take place, and then everyone will sign Unfortunately, that’s blank, but there’s some writing at the bottom of the page And if you don’t read the parish register, you would never learn that “This marriage was not solemnised because Henry Lees, the father of Mary Lees, forbade it, stating upon oath that his daughter was under age, on 13 June 1847” So that marriage didn’t take place Hambleton in Wiltshire sometimes the vicars felt and even though now its on printed forms that we could squeeze something else in for our delight and it really is for our delight this one There it is there, and it says this is the “son of a woman named Draper who was sold at Calne market by her husband to Harper the father of this man” Remember wife selling, why did they do it? because the ordinary person couldn’t afford to take out a private members’ bill in parliament to apply for a divorce at the cost of 2000 pounds. Probably more money than he would earn in 10 or 15 years So the only way he could get rid of his unwanted wife or she wanting to go as well was to take them to the market and sell them and you’ve all read the Major of Castor Bridge and you all know about wife selling The legal age for marriage prior to 1763 was 12 or more for girls and 14 for boys From 1763 the you had to have your parent or guardian’s consent if you were under the age of 21 If I just get rid of that mouse which is a nuisance Now the marriage licence, these are a little trickier to find because not all of them have stood the test of time A copy would be in the hands of the couple and so that would have to be handed down in your family records and not many have got those But, this is one from 1819 But if the parties don’t wish to have their business publicly announced on three consecutive Sundays in church – so everybody knows that he’s going to marry her and they’ll be great gossip – That was the best bit of the church service actually when I went to church regularly was to listen to who was going to marry who Right If they live in different dioceses they have to have a licence; they can’t get married by banns And if they’re not resident in the parish for 3 weeks while the banns are being called then they have to have a licence And these may have survived in County and Diocesan offices Lord Hardwicke’s Act on 25 March 1754 is for the better prevention of clandestine marriages Now you’ve all heard about the border marriages up at Gretna Green and various other Lamberton tollbooths and things, also the Fleet marriages in London Or that you could sail across the Channel to Jersey and get married and sail back when you were married and you’d consumated it and then no one could break you up Well it was deemed that the people doing this were usually de-frocked vicars And so Lord Hardwicke wanted to sort this out The first thing he did was make a separate register for marriages on pre-printed forms with spaces for the signatures of the bride, the groom, the witnesses and the minister And the intention of course was to make these marriages illegal Then on the day this came in, so on 24 March 1754 there were 2000 Fleet marriages took place on one day in London Marriage here in 1731. Now after Henry VIII when we became Anglican, the Church of England everything was to be in English not in Latin but some vicars always wanted to show off their prowess And I research a place called Moor in Daresbury in Derbyshire and the vicar there for years wrote everything in Latin so you have to be reasonably, I mean I didn’t take Latin at school but with the guide books that are here on the shelves in the library and at the NZSG you can work out exactly what was happening So this is Thomas Fletcher of Moor and Alice Norman of Dutton getting married The Interregnum, that’s the period after we’ve chopped the head off poor old King Charles I and before Charles II comes on the throne the country is ruled by Oliver of Cromwell He was a Puritan And he thought that christenings in church at a font with holy water was totally idolatrous Therefore it had to be in a lead basin with ordinary water And all banns for marriage and the marriage had to take place in the market place not in church So what happened was the clergy was still there but just hanging on by the skin of their teeth As long as they were very low church and there were no incense in the church and things They would actually bless them and some of them do a full marriage service because the people didn’t think they were married by the “Yes I do take you, thank you very much” and off they went to do their shopping And they also introduced a fee from that day for baptisms, which didn’t go down very well And so, you can’t read this I’m afraid, its very small writing but basically all the way through each one of these says “according to the Act” So they are making known that the Act is there So the vicar was recording the marriages but they were taking place in the market place not in the church And again baptisms during this time clearly says “According to the Act” And here is an interesting record these were entered chronologically and in order So we have a marriage, we have baptisms and we have a block of burials But they don’t happen neat and tidily like that, neither do they get married in alphabetical order do they? So you know immediately that this is a copy register And they’ve sorted them as they’ve copied them So very good if this is all you can get but you need to try and go back and find the original parish register just in case there was some more information there The Bishops’ Transcripts were the copy that they made and they had to be in the bishops’ office by Easter of each year Were they done by the vicar? Were they done by the church wardens? A lot of church wardens couldn’t actually read and write They could speak and the could carry out their duties but they may not have been able to read and write so they would just get somebody in the village who could, probably the school master to do these copies They’re called Bishops’ Transcripts and they’re held in county record offices And of course county record offices they realised in 1900 that a lot of these records were being destroyed either by water, by rats – being eaten or many churches were using the paper or the parchment to fuel the fire to keep the church warm and so they had to do something about it So all the records once the record books were full had to be placed either in a hermetically sealed and protected safe in the church and they couldn’t afford that So they opened county record offices and thank goodness that’s why we have county record offices all over England and Wales For the preservation of church and civil records On 28 July 1812 A man called Mr Rose again came out with an Act “For the better regulating and perserving parish and other registers of births, baptisms, marriages and burials in England” on a pre-printed form So you’re going to loose any of those comments that we have seen Although some of them actually managed to bend the rules a bit and here you’ll see he’s actually managed to record the middle one as illegitimate so you know carefully Even though there’s no father named and there’s no father’s occupation – that box is blank And he’s managed to squeeze in the box for the date of the baptism the date of birth as well And of course some people aren’t christened for several years My mother was 7 when she was christened, when her father came home from sea and three of their siblings were all christened together This is a film which is why it’s black on white, very poorly preserved But enough for me to see that the second one down which is George the son of Thomas and Mary Grime of Great Crowdon which is in East Yorkshire But you see that somebody has kindly saved my bacon by writing alias Graham up above So, these are the things that make research quite a joy to us Baptisms can be frustrating because you can have, this is between 1738-1739, I’ve blown it up The women have no place in this It is just that Hannah the daughter of Robert Hurst was baptised No mum mentioned at all or William the son of William Cutt was baptised So you’ve then go to go looking for the marriages of those people to find who the female is And this one was really interesting and I always like showing this This is Sarah Jane Graham but unfortunately when she was christened somebody a lot later, from 1836 to 1926 came along, I’ll just blow it up there and brought an affidavit to say well her name isn’t Sarah Jane it’s Mary Jane Now I’ve not fathomed this out yet But when she subsequently got married she thought the vicar thought she was Mary Ann and then when she signed its Mary Jane so he had to change it So these are the things that make our lives either a headache or, that’s why we do this hobby Non-parochial registers These are all the Methodist, Quaker, Jewish, Roman Catholic baptist records and any of the offshoots of them They were all called in to London by the Registrar General when civil registrations started on 1 July 1837 They were all held in National archives in Kew and we are forever grateful because they are now all on film they are actually on film with the LDS, but they are all online at the Genealogist that’s available here in the library for you to use and it’s also at the NZSG I’m just going to show you one register to show you that life isn’t all easy These are the details about members of the Independant Church of Knaresborough up in Yorkshire It’s a bit difficult to read But he explains that somebody is a very shining Christian, that’s nice And here he’s gone back over what he’s written and he records, so over on the right in 1812 on that first line he’s written something that someone was received into the Church and then at the end of it he’s put Died 1819 So that’s another piece of information if that’s your family Then this register deteriorates This was lovely This is the minister making comments, he’s put about them being dead and then here we have Recieved Henry and William Kemp Both almost deaf and the former quite blind But both with monuments of mercy and brands plucked out of the fire Now if you know what that means I’ll be grateful if you will explain it But I gave, I hope to glory so they died But then when we turn over He’s deteriorated into a form of short hand that I can tell you that the best short hand typists in NZ and in England and back in Yorkshire, none of us can translate it and read so we don’t know what this page actually says A Quaker marriage takes place in the meeting Anyone who wants to get married in a Quaker Church, they apply to the meeting when they say who’s going to marry And then they are investigated to make sure that they are not first cousins, there’s no inpropriety any reasons why they can’t get married They get married in the meeting and everyone in that meeting becomes a witness to that wedding And they are charged with making sure that it’s a very happy and long marriage Rose’s Act of 1812 intended to standardise the registers and stop the extra information But, before that we get some wonderful gems and this is what we all like seeing This is Hambleton in Wiltshire, 1806 Sophia Gatcomb Baseborn son of Charlotte Barnard So already you’ve found a child’s name because she’s given a different name to her child and you can follow that line through This one which gets more intrigue Charles the reputed son of Daniel Wall by Mary the wife of John Coleman in H.M service and supposed now to be in Jersey So while the cat’s away the mice will play Or Aaron the son of Olivia Draper who was sold by William Draper her husband at Caine Market to James Harper her brother in law with whom she now most shamefully cohabits Now these we lose when we standardise the registers As you can see Burials after 1812, no cause of death, no pouse, no parents just their name, their occupation, where they were living how old they were, you might get occupation you might not. This vicar hasn’t put any of that in You can see there I have blown it up We have one interesting burial time and that’s between 1668 and 1815 This is a national thing, you know that as genealogists we all look at social history, economic history as well it really increases our knowledge And so here we have the fight for the woolen industry That has been the main staple industry of Britain from time immemorial but all of a sudden America is flooding the market with cotton We need to stop that How best to stop it than to admit that from now we have an act, the Burial in Wool Act which says “No corpse of any person except those who die with the plague (don’t want to know them) shall be buried in any shift, sheet, shroud, or anything whatsoever made or mingled with flax, hemp, silk, hair, gold or silver, or any stuff or anything other that is not made of sheep’s wool and only on pain of forfeiture of 5 pounds So you had to take an affadavit after the funeral into the church to swear that the deceased had been buried in wool And so you found that the upper echelon well they paid the 5 pounds, it was of absolutely no consequence And burying them in cotton was much nicer than burying them in wool, apparently But Here you find the burial registers quite clearly say that they are buried according to the Act and the affadavait was bought into the church and here is the affidavit from Loutin for Susanna Panter to say – and I Iove the little skeleton at the top that the person has filled in it’s not in all of them but it was on the ones in Loutin To say that she was buried in wool They introduced in 1697 a duty, this is the Crown trying to raise money And so two shillings for a birth, that is absolutely horrendous It could be more than somebody earnt in a quarter of a year or half of a year You know, its a lot of money so what you have to remember is they may not get christened So if you can’t find them that might be the reason because they’re not paying Two and six for a marriage and four shillings on the burial of all non paupers and that’s quite a lot of money as well We leave the births, deaths and marriages and we now look at the parish chest records Vestry minutes Church wardens accounts What are they? They’re the accounts for the maintenance of the parish All the roads, all the bridges coming in and going out of the parish The collection and distribution of the poor rate the preparation of the jury lists the lists of men over the age of 15 who can fight for the county and the country and the support of the work house when they were built Some parishes couldn’t support their own so you have cooperating work houses covering several parishes The administration of the parish has always been in the hands of its inhabitants And when the manor broke down in the 14th century The church and the vestry took over the responsibility The vestry is the name of the meeting, it’s the room where the meeting takes place This is a picture of quite a unique vestry that’s actually been built outside the church this is in Cinderhill in Nottingham Right, the appointments to the vestry are usually voluntary and after a year’s service, settlement in that parish will be granted This is a lovely picture in 1911 of St Bees’ parish council and you will see there’s a definite lack of women Who are the parish officials? Two church wardens Responsible for all activities in the parish and the church property The Constable to maintain law and order in the parish The overseer responsible for the accounts of the parish, he’s the treasurer The beagle, the parish constable of the Anglican Church And one often charged with the duties of charity And looking after the work house and the orphanage Remember the work house was also the old people’s home And it’s also where either the children with no parents or children with parents who couldn’t look after them where they were put The rat catcher keep the place clean and tidy The waywarden, responsible for all the highways Tide waiters if they’re on the coast, there’s loads of other duties The first page of the vestry minutes of Saint Botolph in Aldgate shows that on 22 June 1786 these were the people all listed, and they are all listed on the page there So you can find, so everybody did take a turn if they were reasonably well off, they took a turn on one of these duties Here we have in 1806 that Edward Lomas has gone to the vestry because he wants his cottage back But it’s been lent out to somebody called Bowen Brown but he wants to sell it and they’ve agreed that he can do so And that’s been signed by the clerk of the meeting John Gregory When I found this I was really thrilled because those three are actually first cousins They’re all on my tree Here’s the house Here’s the farm which until last year was still in the hands of the family, which was rather exciting And now we get a lot of them online, how many of you have looked for them online? This one is Kurt Newton Fundraising The parish needs to raise, the church has to raise money, how did they do it? Well they have things, really weird things like the church ale This is a sobriety time But, the farmer would gift barley to the church and that was quite common The church reeve would hare the barley, brew the ale and then sell it to raise money. They had great ale tastings Otherwise known as a big boozy do And that money would raise money towards the upkeep of the church They kept bees, and this is in Hartpury in Gloucestershire and you’ll see the lovely bee hives, they were brick along there and they kept the honey They kept the bees for honey and also for the wax for the church candles In my parish in Haswall in Cheshire they sold the pews, they lent out pew rentals, and they were all listed in the records These for Kirknewton are up on the website so you can see where everyone was actually sitting and you can see although there’s a picture of the church there were two aisles in the church and three rows of pews A few years ago the only records you could get online or on film at the LDS for Cheshire were the church records other than Births, Deaths and Marriages because the Bishop of Chester wouldn’t let the Mormons film those records And in desperation one day I was looking, what can I look at? And I found cow rental accounts and I thought ‘Oh! I will have a look at those’ So I discovered and then I had to do research because there’s my fellow there George Myer renting out three cows So he says, right I’ll lend out three for a year at three groats a year so he gets three groats for those to a poor person, a good and godly parishioner and that means that that family will have a house cow and have milk for the family But the classic is that the parishioner had to care for the cow and bring him in to church every Easter Sunday To make sure that it was being well cared for I wonder who cleared up afterwards The poor rate, this is where you find the upper echelon, those people who can afford the poor rate and those people who are receiving it Not very easy on here, it’s just the layout for you to have a look at Some of them again are online so you can see them here This is Shalfleet in the Isle of White That’s telling you how many houses, how many men, how many people are in the parish Then there’s a list of their names and how much rent they are paying and how much rates they are paying to the church This one is also online And this is for Doddington in Northumberland and not only is it one payment it’s the four payments through the year So it’s quarterly And this one Is the church wardens of Morpeth Then we come to tithe assessments because in 1835 we have the enclosures and we have people now paying land tax So this is Brassington in Derbyshire, and here this is my fourth times great grandfather and he has all those properties in this village So we can find them today when we go, we can have a look at them, we can find them on a map and it tells us how much tax he was paying on them Here’s the tithe map and I have highlighted in red all his properties The property that’s numbered 569 is a rather large field, it’s called Jinsey’s Jolly and it is now owned by my cousin this is the sixth generation they still own it Every two years Andrew has to go and stand on that piece of land and claim it back in the name of the Watson family And its now, its always been opened for anyone to graze their horses or sheep or cows on and it’s still like that today Here’s a modern map showing you where exactly those same places are so you can go and see them today We’re going to now look at the documents of Poor Law and why are they in the parish chest records The Poor Law records cover settlement papers, removal orders, examinations and apprenticeship records These are parish apprenticeships not private apprenticeships They all had to go to the quarter sessions or petty sessions, quarter sessions every quarter of the year on the four days of the year, Lady Day St Michaelmas, supposed to be Christmas Day but they moved that one as they didn’t want it on Christmas Day And the copy of those records are held in the parish chest records, if they’ve survived If they’ve survived But the quarter session records have survived in county record offices because they are civil records So if you don’t find them in one, have a look in the other In 1662 was the Settlement Act And it was called the Act for the Better Relief of the Poor of this Kingdom The Act was to establish which parish a person belonged It was their parish of settlement And so that parish was responsible for them when they could no longer care for themselves whether they had an accident, whether they be maimed, whether they were infirm or whatever Also if they were born there illegitimately then the parish had to look after them, so you can guess what happened All pregnant woman who were having an illegitimate child were removed as much as they could This is an early settlement certificate not neccessarily because there’s a hole in it, but it doesn’t give a lot of details about the family It is really the administration of ‘this person is settled in this parish’ And he would take that with him He would fold it up put it in his pocket when he goes to his new Parish where he’s going to work, he would have to hand it in to the parish officials They would hold it in the parish chest Until he became chargeable in that parish When they would then go to court, to the quarter sessions and have him removed Because they didn’t want to pay the upkeep on him when he didn’t belong to them So this is what this is all about So this certificate here allows John Alchin to move from Leybourne to East Malling in Kent probably next door, I’m not quite sure you’d have to look on a map The laws of settlement after 1662 gave you very clear instructions about settlement If you were born in that parish That is your primary parish of settlement, no one can take that from you But you can move your parish of settlement by various means If you are hired continually for more than a year and a day in a new parish Then you can apply for parish of settlement in that parish And that means What happened was, a lot of people didn’t want to do that So they actually were only hired for one day less than a year so it meant shorter contracts on employment In order to have legal settlement apart from being born there the other reasons were if you held a parish office for more than a year so the church warden, the overseer, the constable, the field master, the waywarden, the rat catcher they could have settlement in a new parish If you paid rent on a property of more than 10 pounds a year or you paid taxes on a property of more than 10 pounds a year Then you could have settlement in that parish To have married a man who had settlement in a new parish You could have settlement in that parish as long as he lived After that, when he died you get biffed out back to your parish of birth Think about that one Previously If you’ve received relief for some reason from that parish Then you could have settlement in that parish And if you’ve served a 7 year apprenticeship Someone like to turn their phone off? No, okay that’s good If you’ve served a 7 year apprenticeship you can have settlement in that new parish And this has great implications as we’ll quickly have a look at 1729, this is a settlement certificate you can see there’s been a little bit of square paper placed over the seals of the two Juctices of the Peace But they have put their seal. Their seal is their signet ring, a few men wore signet rings and then put wax on the page and then pressed their signet, their seal in Thomas Fulfor and his family had settled they’ve got settlement in All Saints in Hertford But they’ve moved into the parish of Datchworth in Hertfordshire So they’ve presented this document to say that they can come but if they are chargeable then they have to be removed back to All Saints in Hertford There can be examinations, ‘Why are you living in our parish?’ And these are fascinating, these will give you the family history These will tell you as this one does where this man was born, who his parents were How long he has worked here and here Right down to the end it will tell you who his wife is, how his children are, what their names are and what their ages are This is why these are so invaluable to us So you can see there, his wife was called Sarah and he had four children, William I can’t see it and then James, and The light’s shining on it so I can’t read it, I’m sorry Now we have a removal order So here’s Boys Simons, Boys is his Christian name His wife Martha and their children Boys 11, Edward 6, James 5, Hester Mary 7. Now they have become chargeable on Marden Parish in Kent so So the church wardens have gone to the quarter sessions to have him removed back to his parish of settlement which is Chatham in Kent, and he will be escorted that day off, out of the county boundry by the beagle and sent home We don’t want you And this is lovely, I love this…. In 1801 Nancy Fancott, a single woman with child So very quickly they managed to go to the quarter sessions to get her removed because she has settlement in Marden, in Kent, but she’s wandered into Yalding So they’ve removed her back before she has the child, so the child doesn’t get born in that county and have settlement and chargeable on that parish That was 1801 But by 1806, again Nancy Fancott is up before them, and again she’s pregnant and she’s still unmarried and she’s wandered back into Yalding and so she’s going to be removed again back into Marden This removal order is very sad In 1808 James Farris, illegitimate child of Anne Farris, has been taken into Marden but is chargeable on Beneden that was where he was born so he was removed that was where he was born so he was removed but his mother wasn’t Examinations They go to the Justices and they are asked ‘Why do you think you need to have settlement in this parish? Where do you really think that you belong?’ So this was in Butterley in Devon Then we come to parish apprentices, apprenticeships This is the indenture, and as you can see its all wiggly along the top It is cut that way for a reason Because one indenture is kept by the officials, and the other part of it is given to the apprentice And only when he gets both parts back will that apprentice be free So that’s why its that lovely wiggly line, it hasn’t been ripped and you think ‘Oh it’s all been worn away’ there is a reason for it So this is Charles Earl, a poor child of Thwaite, and he’s been taken out of his parish where he was born and he’s been apprenticed until he is 21 years, to John Clark of Barningham in Norfolk Which is right across the other part of the county so he’s going to be in pastures new Ann Lee aged 12 She was required to serve apprenticeship, usually as a house servant, the girls, that’s what they got until she was 21. So from 12 to 21, and she couldn’t marry until she was free So this is Ann Lee and who was she apprenticed to? Well she was apprenticed to the vicar, Reverend Willing But he wasn’t willing and he refused to take her Now I don’t know if he refused because she was a young girl and he lived on his own as a vicar and didn’t want that responsibility So, he actually was fined for 10 pounds for not taking a parish apprentice So these are all the lovely things, this came from Shropshire archives So you can see they’re all over the country Joseph Eccleston was an apprenticed to William Lee in the parish of Chad in Shrewsbury and Lee abused Joseph, frequently beating him in a cruel manner and Joseph managed one day to escape out of the house and go and tell somebody who marched him immediately off to the Justices and so he was released from his apprenticeship And so that’s what the back of the document actually tells you Now this is a case that, if you can’t find your family, you need to think about where these children could have gone I actually have done a thesis on this and I don’t have time to do it in great detail but I’ll just give you an outline of a couple The church wardens of Essex actually sent children who could be chargeable on the parish up to the woollen mills of Lancashire and Yorkshire Children were sent from London, apart from them being sent to Virginia, which was a lot further in America They were also sent to the paisley mills in Edinburgh Boys were sent to Grimsby to be Fisherman No choice about it But I’ve just done one survey and that is on the Chelmsford Parish At the vestry minutes in 1799 the agent from Douglas & Co of Pendleton approached the church wardens and said We are running out of child labour, we need more Basically because the children had to run under the looms. As the looms are going up and down and of course they got their ears chopped off and their arms chopped off and maimed and they couldn’t work So they were very replaceable, so they needed some more children So they looked around in the parish work house and they said ‘Oh yes, we’ve got some children’, so 13 were sent We actually have the apprenticeship records for these children and they’re in the Essex record office. You can see there’s a Catherine Smith and Elizabeth Smith, 10 and 7 Now they were sent from Essex 150 miles up to Pendleton in Lancashire They took 2-3 days to get there, they did so on the back of a flat top horse-drawn truck, they got there They got there at night, they were divided into two. Half went on night shift and the other half were put to bed At 7am, they swapped over. The night shift got into the same bed and the others were put on to work They were given one outfit to work in and one outfit for Sunday because the church wardens wanted them to attend church But as they worked 7 days a week with no days off that wasn’t going to happen and they had the irritating habit of growing out of their clothes or wearing them out So they also wore their church clothes out and they couldn’t go to church as they had nothing decent to go in Someone Catherine Smith’s mother found out about the mistreatment of the children and she appealed to Chelmsford to actually go and see her children And they gave her the money to go and she went and she came back and said they were being most shamefully abused That they were in rags, that they didn’t see daylight, they didn’t have any education, they weren’t being taught their letters Normally children were taught letters by the vicar or the curate at church services on Sunday in Sunday School This wasn’t happening So, the parish was a bit confused so they sent the beagle Of course the beagle worked for the parish and he came back and said nonense they are fine nothing wrong with them at all What he had actually meant was that Chelmsford no longer sent children out of the Parish they employed all the children in the parish after that date Here’s the surviving indenture for Elizabeth Smith who was 7 at the time And some of the others Joseph Wybrow returned home after 8 years, he ran away, and said ‘Right I’m back’ This is to Chelmsford And the Chelmsford overseer said ‘No you’ve been out of our parish for more than 5 years you now have settlement in Eccles’ which is where Pendleton is, big parish of Eccles, ‘Go back’ So he couldn’t look after his widowed mother. He had to go Where as John Maddox was a bit more wily. He ran away after 6 weeks, from Pendleton He hired himself out on day hire only, and makes that very clear in his examination And then he worked his way down back to London and he joined the Army And the Army has no parish of settlement, it is open Therefore the 12 years that he was in the Army are fine, so when he turned back up in Chelmsford to look after his ageing mother, they welcomed him with open arms Where do we look for these records? Family Search, this is the LDS site. Go to the Family History library catalogue, look for your parish Look for your parish and then church records Order the film in to a family history centre. Into here, the Central Auckland Research Centre or in the NZSG in Panmure Search the internet The National Archives has Discovery. And on Discovery right down the bottom of the page you now have a button for all other archives in the country It used to be called Access to Archives, A2A, and now they’ve moved it We all loved A2A but they’ve just changed it So I do apologise because I’ve just seen when I was reading this before I’ve forgotten to change the A2A but if you go to National Archives, look for Discovery, their catalogue which you will get automatically, you will see it down at the bottom The county record offices for every county in England and Wales FindMyPast Ancestry and the Genealogist But we also have free sites, like volunteer transcriptions sites. Have you all looked at FreeReg? We’ve all used Free BDM, well FreeReg or FreeCen looks after the census these are transcriptions and they’re free Family Search, I’ve just keyed in Cheshire and you can see these are all the parish records I can look at for Cheshire Those without a camera are just indexed Those with a camera beside them, the little black dot is probably what you see on the right I can actually trawl through the records, the actual registers, and find the records On Ancestry The London Metropolitan Archive, which covers the whole of greater London basically anything inside the M25 So if you look at a map of London, you see the big blue circle, anything inside that, the records more than likely are at London Metropolitan Archive they’ve been given to Ancestry, and so you can find quite easily through the index Just be aware of spelling mistakes and transcription errors, that’s all And the other one is FindMyPast And I apologise I made this a week ago and FindMyPast has changed the website, so it doesn’t quite look like this any longer which is always a problem when we make these presentations But it tells you what you need to know There are special collections for various counties for England and Wales As well as, you can look at the Birth, marriage and death & parish records, which is on the left Transcriptions are available through parish records societies, family history societies, individuals and online A lot have been published, this library is full of them, do go and have a look at the books on the shelves and in the CDs, and also on microfiche And I keep hearing people say ‘Oh I haven’t got time to look at the microfiche’ But you know, it does take a few minutes just to get the hang of looking at microfiche or at the CD, but you’ll find there’s a wealth of information there Individuals have done many transcriptions and a lot now are available online One of the organisations put together a collection of what they’ve called ‘online parish clerks’ They’ve called themselves that, they’re not official parish clerks that I’ve been talking about. They’re calling themselves online parish clerks And for these counties, some of them have got their records there for you to search others you email the parish clerk and they will answer your query Which is very good. They’ll do a look up for nothing Look at Genuki, which is Genealogical Information UK and Ireland Which I’ve given you the website in the handout Select the country, select the county, select the topic So here’s the main website Genuki, so select England, that’s an interactive map so you can go onto the map or you can find the words on the left or the right I’ve just chosen Devon and gone to Upottery to see what’s there. My family is called Finnemore in Devon So it comes up with all these banns, baptisms, marriages and burials And they’re all hyperlinked, so that means they take me from there to a database and so key in the name Phenemore And it came up with two, and I thought no it should come up with a lot more and then I remembered, you can spell Finnemore in about five different ways So who was doing the spelling? Well that was a parish clerk as he heard it and if they’ve come into the county or into the village, it might have a very, even in Devon, there are different accents in Devon, so you need to be aware of that So this is very interesting, because this looks as though Frances who is the cattle doctor or veterinarian is having children for over 30 years which is lovely for him, but wow His wife is called Elizabeth And I thought that was really rather strange, and when I really started looking, he married a second time Elizabeth died and he married another lady called Elizabeth So you do need to watch out for that And here is a classic in the burials, to show that Frances died spelt with an ‘e’ and his wife died spelt – his first wife that is – spelt with an ‘i’ So you need to take your blinkers off when looking at spelling of surnames FreeReg is very useful. It’s only a transcription you don’t get the parish register But here it is, so I have just shown you here. I’m doing Kent and I’m looking for Dockery And their they are there. And it tells me that they are at Dartford Now that’s all it says there But Dartford is part of the Medway collection, that’s right along the North West Coast of the Thames Out in Kent So if you look at the parish registers If you go and find them, you click on St Mary’s, click on the time that you want, and whether you want burials, marriages or baptisms and then that’s what you get A list of jpegs So you’ve got to think, ‘Right I’ve said I want half way through that block’ So you click on it, and then you go backwards and forwards, and there it is, and it’s free That saves you a lot of money, saves you $20,000 from going there to look because here it is and it’s free So you can search these while you’re watching telly So this is the one we wanted and there she is Lucy Anne to Robert Thornton and Mary Anne Dockery and he was a victualler and also a market gardener And ladies and gentleman I’ve run out of time, this is normally a 3.5 hour workshop which I’ve just managed to do in an hour and 5 minutes So thank you all for listening and I hope you have fun

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