Tracing your criminal ancestors: an introduction

Hello, and welcome to
this National Archives webinar, which we’re
doing as part of the “Who Do You Think You Are?” Live, the week of that. My name is Christopher Day. And I’m a modern domestic
records specialist at the National Archives. And today, I’m going
to talk about how you can trace 19th century
criminals, ancestors, or non-ancestors if you’re
just interested using the records of the
National Archives. So we should get going. The first thing
I’ll just say, I’m going have a think about
the sort of process people go through when
they’re being processed by the criminal system in
this period of history. It’s interesting to
look at this flow chart here because every
point in it might lead to the creation
of some sort of record. So this is sort of
after arrest it starts. And you see here we have
an indictment, which is a formal statement of
the charge against someone. And if this gets proved by a
grand jury, as in some judges, then we have a record
of the indictment, which is the formal statement
of the charge, as I’ve said. Then we come down here
after the indictment’s been made to records of a trial,
or, in fact, to a petty jury, a jury of your peers. And so then you’ll have
records of the trail, search of the indictment, and again,
statement of the charge. Deposition, which is
things like witness statements and
supporting statements, don’t always survive. But we’ll talk about that more
later, and other documents. And then we have the verdict. If you’re not guilty,
then obviously, you cease to be part
of the criminal system. So that’s the end. But if you’re guilty,
then obviously, we’re going to have a
number of different records. So according to the
sentence, whether you have a punishment of some kind. It might be a court-appointed
fine or a whipping. It might be a death
sentence, in which case we have documents
related to the fact that someone’s been
sentenced to death. It might be a time in a prison
or on a prison hulk, one of those boats on the
coast of the United Kingdom and other places. I’m sure you’re
aware of Magwitch from Great Expectations. He was living on a
hulk on the Seine. So we have some records of that. Or, of course, transportation
to the colonies, as Magwitch, again, in Great
Expectations did actually endure. We have records of
people we transported to Australia and also to
America in earlier periods. And, of course,
also, we have records of people getting a
respite in their sentence for early releases. Or, indeed, a pardon, we want
to talk about those today, as well. And let’s just speak
a little bit more about what we are
going to do today. So hopefully, by the
end of this webinar, you are going to have an
idea of where you can go out looking for evidence of someone
being tried and punished, using the records of
the National Archives to predict the looking
at criminal registers and criminal calendars. And we’ll go through
that in a minute. We’re also going
look about where you might go to look for
the records of trials in Assize Courts. In fact, they’re what we
call Crown Courts today, Crown Courts in 1972, they
were called Assize Courts up until 1971. And, of course, the
Old Bailey, as well, or the Central Criminal Court
as it is now officially known, but we also call the Old Bailey. We’re also going
to cover where you might look for records or
transportation or records of imprisonment. And then we’re going
finish off by looking at records of pardons
and respite, particularly criminal petitions
and criminal licences. We’re going to cover
transportation briefly, because it’s quite a
big subject and this not the longest of webinars. But I will be directing
you to a guide. And I do cover it,
which is very useful. Now, so we’re going to start
by thinking out how would we work out where or
when someone was tried. So if you’ve established
when someone was tried for something– you have
an old newspaper article, or there’s a family story– then you need to
think about what court the trail took place in and
whether the records will be here at the National
Archives or otherwise. So it’s worth noting that the
National Archives does not hold all court records. We hold the records of people
being tried in assizes, because the court
records themselves, and also, we hold registered and
supporting documents of people who were tried at Quarter
Sessions, which are effectively similar to assizes that
they’re quarterly local courts. However, if someone was tried
at a Petty Session, which we might call a Magistrate
Court or a Summary Jurisdiction Court, or a Police
Court, then they will not be held in
the National Archives. There’s unlikely to be many
details about that person too, in which case, you need to
go to your county record office or the county
record office for the place that the trail took place in. You can find details of that
using the Find an Archive feature on Discovery,
which we have here. Do you see you can search
by the name of the archive. Or, indeed, you can use the
map, which is helpfully divided into regions of the country. Choose by what
you’re looking for. It’s also worth noting that
we don’t hold the majority of modern trial records. We held some. So as I said, in
1971, Assize Courts were abolished and
replaced by Crown Courts. There were some records here. And many are still held by
other courts, themselves, or the Ministry of Justice. So if you’re looking
for modern trials, so be advised that you
may not be finding much at the National Archives. Doesn’t necessarily mean
that nothing survives. And I’m going to keep referring
to our National Archives research guides
throughout this webinar. They are a fantastic resource,
wider kind of research we’re doing. And so we’re going to
be talking about a few particularly during
this webinar. But I will say here,
when initially when you’re researching these
things, the best places to look if you’re
researching criminal history or criminal ancestors is the two
guides, Criminals and Convicts and Prisoners or Prison Staff. We give a fantastic
amount of detail of what records are
available and how you can go about looking for them. But what about if you don’t
know the details of the trail? Well, all is not lost. So if you don’t know the
details of the trail, but you have a vague idea of
when someone was convicted, and their name, and
et cetera, then there are two options for you
to able to find records. The first are criminal
registers for England and Wales, which run from 1791 to 1892. And they’re held in the National
Archives record series HO 26 and HO 27. HO 26 only covers
London and Middlesex, which is a bit earlier. And you can also look in the
British Library’s Newspaper Archive, which runs through
the 19th century, really useful tool, very searchable. It’s available in Find
My Past, as well, now, actually, as are lots of other
local newspapers are available as well in there. And here we have the Search
page for the criminal registers. They’ve been digitised and put
on Ancestry, as you can see. It’s got quite an extensive
Search form there. And also, when you
are losing some of the histories of
genealogy websites, you might not get results
because you’re putting too much information in. So it’s always worth
starting small. Just go with a name,
maybe a birth year. See what you get from there. Add detail if you’re
getting a lot of results. But don’t say too much
because then you might end up not getting any results at all. So just as an example of
the kind of information we can find, starting with
relatively basic knowledge of someone, I’m just going
to take an example of someone called Sarah Sanders. She was sentenced to seven
years penal servitude in 1878 for larceny, which is theft. In fact, that she’s
talking to her father. And she was also given an
additional day in prison for attempting suicide, which
is a pretty miserable one up there, sort of expresses the
occasional unpleasant nature of the Victorian
judicial system. I say occasionally unpleasant. So let’s have a
look there with what we can kind find about Sarah. So you can see,
I’ve made a search in the criminal
registers, just using her name and her date of birth. I don’t know if
you can see here. We get some results for
her at the top here. There’s a reason why
there’s two entries. It’s because she was convicted
of two crimes, one of the theft and the one of the
attempted suicide. Ah, excuse me. So you can see, here she is. And there she is again. And it gives us details
of her conviction, et cetera, et cetera. So she’s sentenced to seven
years in penal servitude, and also, three years
of police supervision, and, again, imprisonment
here of one day. So penal servitude id sort of
more serious prison sentence, serving in a national gaol,
a penitentiary if you will. Or in prison it could
be in an open gaol. These HO 26 and HO 27
registers will provide you with varying degree of detail. But they might give you
stuff like someone’s age that the place up
until 1802 also was. That’s got recorded. When and where they were
tried, which is, obviously, what we’re looking for in
this case, when and where they were received– I mean, so after
conviction, what might be happening to them,
that’s often recorded, not always– their date of
execution, if they’re sentenced to death, or
their date of release, if they’re found not guilty. And they also might
tell you by who they were committed to trial
by assize, the magistrate who heard their case and then sent
them up to the higher court, and, again, to whom
they were delivered. So where they went after
the trail is recorded. Equally, searching for Sarah
in the Newspaper Archive gives us quite a lot of results. So you can see here, I’ve made
a search for her name and just Exeter, because I know it’s
the nearest large town of where she lives. And you see here the
newspaper article, it’s basically a
report of what’s happened at the Exeter
Quarter Sessions when Sarah was convicted. And you see an article
when it comes to her name. They have character. And now, we’re going to move
on to Citizen Prison Registers that are after-trial calendars
of people who were imprisoned and what they can help tell
us about prisoners, as well, sometimes providing
more information than these newspaper articles
and the criminal registers we just looked at. So, again, we’re looking
for Sarah Sanders here. And this on Find My Past
in their collection, those criminal records
for the National Archives of England and Wales,
Crime, Prisons, and Punishments, 1770 to
1935, really extensive set of records that
have been digitised. And we can see
here, for instance, Sarah was recorded in HO
140, which is actually from and earlier date of trial. She’d been convicted
before, and, again, down in 1877 here and 1878, here. And these HO 140 records
are after-trial calendars of prisoners. Now, basically, they’re
lists, for the most part, printed of prisoners who have
been tried at Quarter Sessions and Assizes. They’re usually
arranged by county. I say usually; they always are. And they all include the
following information, so the number giving the number
of the conviction, the name of the prisoner, their
age, their trade, their previous convictions,
name and address of their committing
magistrates, those who sent them to trial, perhaps
record the date of the warrant for the arrest, give details
of when they were received into custody, the
offence they were charged with, and sometimes, before
1969, that will include then name of the victim, before
whom they were tried and when, the verdict of the
jury, the sentence, or the order of the court if
it was commissioned to a fine instead or something like that. And yeah, as I’ve
said, you can see here, just by searching
for her conviction year and another conviction
year and her birth year, we get loads of records
for Sarah Sanders. Often with criminals, we’ll
create many, many records. Going back to the flow
chart I was talking about, every part of the process
can create a record, and they can vary in detail. So you really can put up
quite an extensive picture of someone. Now, they’re also sort of
separate discrete records of trials, poor people who
were tried in the Old Bailey or Central Criminal Court. Actually, these can be often
be more rich than people who were tried in the provinces. So I’m just going to
take a look at those now. We’ll see here while I stop. Forgotten that I have an
image of Sarah Sanders HO 140 calendar. And you can see some
more details here. So here she is again. She is again listed twice. You can see attempted
to commit suicide. And you can also see
her larceny conviction. And actually, it
gives quite a lot of detail about exactly what
she stole, not much, actually. It seems rather
unfair the sentences she got, as such as the
justice system of this time, because it was as
the law addressed. Now, I’m moving to trials in
the Old Bailey and the Central Criminal Court. So as I said, people create
different records, Rather than being in HO 27, the
criminal registers for England and Wales, they’re going to be
HO 26, which covers Middlesex. It was no longer a
county then, so we’re covering most of London. And it allows you to have
these other sets of records that can build up a picture. So you can see here, this is
a HO 26, again, from Ancestry. It’s from 1794. And I’m interested in a
man called Peter Farrell. So you see his name is recorded
on the day he was tried, as is his crime, which
was officially described as burglary at night and the
stealing of sundry things, nicely vague. And you can see
that he’s sentenced to seven years transportation,
which is effectively a life sentence, abroad. But also, if you have someone
who’s tried in this period particularly, or the early
19th century in the Old Bailey, you’re really in for
luck because you’ll find that there is a website
called Old Bailey Online, which has transcribed the
proceedings of the Old Bailey from 1674 to 1913, searchable
online, all for free, searchable by name. You can also browse
by date and by crime. It’s a really
fantastic resource. I recommend having a look at it. And from that, you can actually
get a probation testimony from people who were
tried at the Old Bailey. And you can here that we can
find our old friend Peter Farrell, although
in this case, he’s recorded with a
different spelling, which is a reminder if we’re doing
research in some of the earlier part of the 19th century
or the latter part of the 18th century, always
remembering that people have many different
spellings of their names. But this is his testimony
before the court. He was convicted. But it’s an interesting
read, so yes. And then, I mean,
some other examples, later on in the
19th century, there is a sort of parallel criminal
calendar for people who were tried at the Old Bailey. In the records here is CRIM 9. It runs from 1855 to 1949. People who were committed
to the Old Bailey will still appear in the
HO 140, Archive Trial Calendars of Prisoners. But you also find their record
in these particular ones for the Central Criminal Court. And these get day-old
details again, sort of what people
were charged with, the date of the trial
before being tried, and the verdict of the jury. And so here we can find, looking
into the trial of Oscar Wilde, famously tried at Central
Criminal Court in 1895. And here you can see
from Old Bailey Online details of his trial here. Just search for his name. Unfortunately, by the latter
part of the 19th century, you don’t get anywhere near
as much details and abating recording of proceedings
as you do in the earlier part of the 19th century. But it’s still
very easy to find. And then you can see by
searching for him on Find My Past, we can see he was
actually tried twice. And that’s why there
are four records here, because he’s being
recorded in the CRIM 9 Calendars of Prisoners, and also
in the Court of in the HO 140 Middlesex Calendars of
Prisoners at the same time. And just here, a copy of his
entry is the CRIM 9 calendars. OK. So we’ve had a look at how
we can find records that are created by
people being tried, which will give us
information about when their trial took place and what
happened to them afterwards. But I’m now going
to take a quick look at how we can find the requisite
trials, themselves, the records that were generated by the
court during the trial. So again, there is a
division between London and the rest of the country. So if someone was tried
in the Old Bailey, I would recommend always
checking Old Bailey Online, because you can
probably going to find a huge amount of information
there relatively easily. Also, you can see the National
Archive research guide, “Trials in the Old Bailey and
the Central Criminal Court.” That will give you and idea
of what records we hold and what records
are held elsewhere. But we’re also
going to look here at criminal trials
and Assize Courts. This is long run
from 1559 to 1971. We’ll have a look at the kind
of records we can get from them. So when you’re looking for
records of the trial itself, there are three main
types of records. So you have Crown
and Gaol books, which are sort of the
minutes books of the court. They will give you the
name of the accused. They might give you the names of
the jury, as well, the charges, the plea, the sentence. You have the indictment,
which is the formal statement of the charges spoken out. Usually, it is annotated
with the plea and verdict and occasionally the sentence,
and also the depositions, which are basically sort
of witness statements before the trail, all
sorts of things, really. Usually don’t survive,
unfortunately, apart from in very serious sort
of capital offences, things that people could be sentenced
to death for, so for instance, murder, or serious riot. And some of the
later ones, you can take photographs and
maps and stuff like that and occasionally appeal papers. But there is a more
extensive description of what those records
consist of and how you can go about finding
them in the guide, “Criminal Trials in English
Assize Courts, 1559-1971.” There’s one for Wales,
as well, but I’m not going to go past that. Now, we are going to
move on very swiftly. So before, back on
how you find out details of how someone was
tried and what happened, then look for records of
the trials themselves, but we can also think about
what records are created by people being punished. And so we’re going to briefly
look at transportation. And then we’re going to take
a bit more extensive look at prisoners. So transportation,
something which are very much alive in
the popular imagination of your crossing
dramas, basically, it’s the moving of offenders out of
Britain and to its colonies, effectively. So it begins in 1717
by moving prisoners, transporting them to
the American colonies. This ends in the latter
part of the 18th century because there’s a
revolution in America and it stops being part of
Britain, as is well known, I’m sure. Then in 1787, transportation
to Australia, New South Wales, particularly, and to Tasmania
or Van Diemen’s Land, as it was known in the
Dutch original, begins. And this carries on
just under 100 years until 1868 when
the last convicts were transported to Australia. Most of the locals were
not fond of it happening. Although actually, by
the 1850s, transportation is very much on the decline. The go-to place to look for
records of transportation is the research guide
Criminal Transportees. So I would recommend looking
at that, although we’re going to take a
quick look at what sort of thinks they might have. So we’re looking
here at the case of Mary Lambert,
who was convicted of larceny, very common crime. Again, at the Central
Criminal Court in London, or the Old Bailey were
known at the time. Actually, I think it was
called the Central Criminal Court by then in 1839. And she was sentenced to
seven years transportation. Here she is in HO 26
giving details of her name. And you can see
her sentence here. But there are also quite
a lot of convict records about Mary Lambert. And Ancestry is the
place to really go to look for records of
convicts beings transported. Here she is in HO
10, which these are lists of male
or female convicts and former convicts in
colonies, giving particulars as to their sentences
or employment, their settlement in the country. Land and cattle they
might have acquired then other information. Gives lists of pardons that
were granted, lists of convicts involved who were arriving
in New South Wales. There’s general
musters and censuses of convicts and settlers
from 1828, as well. But this one,
particularly, details that Mary sailed on
the ship the Gilbert Henderson, lovely
name for a ship, arriving in Tasmania in 1840. And it also gives details
of what convict master she was assigned to. You can see it there. So where abouts is she? There she is. Let’s see. This is the ship
Gilbert Henderson here. Also, you can see CCC,
destination of trial, Central Criminal Court. Now, you can use these
and these details to also find about what
life was like for convicts on their journey towards
Australia or afterwards, which I can probably say with
a fair amount or accuracy, usually quite unpleasant. This is an extract
from a surgeon, from the journal of the surgeon
on the Gilbert Henderson convict ship from
16th of May 1840. These are a reference
series, AMD 101, which consists of medical
journals from ships. Really interesting series,
very well catalogued, so do search if you have
any ancestral or some other interest in who
went on the convict ship over to Australia. There may be a
journal surviving. And this journal
really recalls the idea of how sort of harrowing
or unpleasant the journey would have been, the terrible
weather they suffered, and the prevalence and
continued prevalence of seasickness and constipation
for a very long time. Now, we’re going to move away
from the shores of Australia and look closer at home and have
a look at what sort of prison records we might be able
to find or accommodate. An we’re going to focus
on the case of a man called William Scott. So William Scott was convicted
in 1851 at the York Assizes. He was 47 years old. And he was convicted of
shooting with intent to murder. It’s a very strange case. So apparently, he had
walked into his friend Sophia Widdock’s house. And having received no
provocation of any kind, he’d sat down by the fire
and then subsequently drawn out two pistols. He shot Sophia from
about two yards away, so more of less,
point blank range, fortunately only
break one of the ribs. It bounced off the bone. And she managed to
run out the house. He, Scott, subsequently remained
where he was and shot himself in the side, not the side
of the head, just his side, with the other pistol. Fortunately, they
both recovered fully. However, he was sentenced
to 10 years transportation. This is in the 1850s. Transportation’s very
much in the way out. So actually, if you looked
through the records court, and we find he
never left England. And there are a number
of records collected. You can see here
that I’ve searched on Find My Past Newspaper
Archive again. I’ve found an article
form the Hereford Times. It was basically an
interesting big case. I searched William
Scott and shooting York without any dates in there
and found quite a few articles quite quickly. Now, as you can see, I’ve
said before, all parts of criminal process
can generate a record. And you can see that searching
for William Scott and his trial date off Find My Past produces
quite a lot of results. Some of them aren’t the
man we’re looking for, not the droid we’re looking for. But the ones that are
about him, and then together can tell us
quite a lot about how he spent his sentence
and his crime and his conduct in prison. So we can start looking at the
HO 27 criminal registers, which is at the bottom,
so around here. But my image is much
shorter than yours. Some of the other
HO 27s are not here. So we can see William
Scott shooting a person with intent to murder
and the sentence, which is given a sentence to
10 years transportation. It doesn’t show up in the image
I have because I’ve cropped it. Otherwise, none of us would
be able to see anything. Now by the 1850s,
transportation, as I’ve said, is on its way out. So even though people are
sentenced to transportation, they’re actually much more
likely to spend their time in penal servitude, which
is major formal law of 1853. Basically, they’ll be running in
government-run convict prisons or they are in prisons in hulks. They’re theses floating
gaols I was talking about. They’re very unpleasant. And so actually, we can see
here that Scott was initially sentenced to transportation. He was going to go be
sent to a convict prison. But there wasn’t
enough room for him. So he was kept in Wakefield–
it was a county gaol– as opposed to a
national convict prison. And that creates a record
in this record series called HO 23. Basically, overcrowding
and other factors meant there wasn’t
always enough space to place a convict in
a government-run prison immediately. So the government would rent
cells in county prisons. And Scott was rented–
had a cell rented for him in Wakefield until
1852, October, when he would move to the National
Convict Prison of Darville, which also, itself,
creates records. And so there are a number
of different records in the records series
HO 8, which is basically gives a list of convicts on
hulks, in convict prisons, and in insane asylums,
lunatic asylums, as they were referred
to at the time. And it’s really interesting,
this get year-by-year. As we can see here, this Scott
is being held in Darville, and this is him from 1853. So here’s him. You can see again, searching
with intent to murder, tried at York, the
date of his trial, his sentence of 10 years. Also gives the fact
that the surgeon report was to be healthy, and
his conduct was very good, which is nice to know. Scott was also actually
released early. And, again, Find My
Past has details. And you see here, the front
cover of the HO 8 list there. Not immediately apparent,
some is different no what print you’re dealing with. If you flick back through
the images of Find My Past, you should eventually
come to the cover page and know the details of
where someone’s being held. But Scott was released
early, which was also available on Find My Past. And this is when we get into
these really interesting records of respite and pardon. So we can see here,
this is Scott’s licence. He was relieved on licence. In fact, the early release was
something about in the 1850s. Tickets to leave they were
referred to at the same time. You’re bound to good behaviour. Otherwise, you’re obviously,
you’re incarcerated. Before Scott was
licenced, he the actually submitted a
petition for clemency to the Home Secretary. There’s no court of
appeal at this time. So basically, you
appeal directly for a reduction of your
sentence to the Crown, whose represented by a Home
Secretary, some sort of mercy. And we have a huge amount
of these petitions presented by or on behalf of the
criminal between 1819 and 1858. And they’re in the
record series HO17 HO18 at the National Archives,
indexed by a record series called HO 19. You see an entry for Scott here. Many of the petitions and the
indexes are on Find My Past. And they’re some of the most
detailed records for criminals or other people in general,
working class people particularly, available
in 19th century Europe. Now, Scott is very much
on Find My Past and HO 19. [MUMBLING] You see him there. But here’s a petition. It’s not immediately apparent. And that’s because it’s
been catalogued wrong on Find My Past. But we can find it using
the coding in HO 19. That’s what’s was
originally done to it. So we can see his name
here and this code here, which is 351.10, I
believe, yes, 351.10, basically which means that
we can find Scott’s petition in the 351st box of the
records series HO 18. And it will be the 10th petition
within this box, effectively, although we can find his
petition by leaving out on Find My Past via you
can see the reference here, so HO18/351 with the
reference using that index. Although we can actually
find his petition on [AUDIO OUT] with the
reference using that index. Although we can actually
find his petition on Find My Past if we don’t include
his conviction or the dates. And it’s really detailed. There’s a number of
different petitions. It gives us a much better
idea of his circumstances, his standing in the community
before he was convicted, his character,
details of the crime, and explanations of why it
may have happened, also, ideas about why he
should be released. Apparently, he suffered
from indigestion. But it was so bad that
it was debilitating. And that’s why he should
be released early. And they mentioned that
he was after some time. Now, if you look in HO19 and
find that someone had a code which isn’t structured like
that, so isn’t two numbers– it’s maybe some letters and
the numbers and alphanumerical code– then rather the
petition being in HO 18, it will be in the
record series HO 17. So for instance, letter
code had been FM 15. And as we know,
that that petition is contained within HO 17. So we take the case
of John Langbridge. He petitioned against his
1826 conviction for poaching. In 1827, his petition
is given the code FM 15. His petition isn’t
on Find My Past. But we can look for it
in the National Archives catalogue, Discovery. See here, searching by the
code there gives the result, although, actually,
some of these petitions have been really
well-cataloged by volunteers, great amount of detail there. So, I mean, yes,
petitions and licences are some of the richest
records we have of criminals. And they record their conduct
in prison, their character. Particularly, they tell of
their crime and their lifestyle that you wouldn’t find in the
other records we’ve looked at, which are more administrative,
and their future prospect after leaving prison or after
they’ve been transported. Scott’s, for instance, gives
an idea of what he looked like. So he was sallow. He had grey hair and grey eyes,
seemed to have a little bit of facial scarring. And he was described
as being rather stout. I suppose the nice thing about
this sort of unfeeling nature of Victorian prison
authorities is they’re quite frank about
people’s appearances. Also, we have a records of
our old friend Sarah Sanders, including a picture, actually,
from her licence in the 1880s. And some of the
licences are some of the few criminal records that
include photographs, which are really nice a find, obviously. And we also, with
Sanders, get quite an extensive medical report,
which further demonstrates her own quite fragile mental
state and the sort of quite callous treatment that she
received from the prison authorities. So you can see the records
there, for Sanders. So we’ve looked at
how we can find out about when somebody was
tried, what sort of crime the committed and the
sentence they received. We’ve looked at how we can
find records of the trial itself and the
proceedings there. And also, we’ve
examined records of how you can find punishment
and also, how you can find records of release. And so I will reiterate
what I said at the start that when you’re looking for
someone who has been involved in the criminal system in
this period, 19th century, early 20th century, late
18th century, every part of their transfer through
the criminal justice system is likely to generate
some sort of record. And it may be preserved. And each record alone
will build up a picture. The best place to start other
than our research guides, which would probably
tell you the same thing, is to look in the criminal
registers in HO 26 and HO 27, and also, maybe look in
the newspapers collections, as well, if you have
some vague detail. They can be really useful. Again, the newspapers can
provide you with this character and this colour that you might
not get from the administrator of records. I’ll reiterate it one more time. If you’re in doubt
about where to go next, check the guides on the
National Archives website. And they explain what
records are available and how to find them. And they do a step-by-step. And if you’re still
having trouble, then obviously, there are
ways to get in contact with the National Archives. We’re always happy to help
people with their research. So I hope that
webinar’s been useful and you’re filled
with zeal to research criminal genealogy now. And I’ll leave it there. And yes, thank you much.

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