Transkrypcja RNA / RNA transcription – Damian Sojka, ADAMED SmartUP


The life on the Earth is possible thanks
to the flow of genetic information. At the heart of molecular
biology lies the theory that this information comes from DNA,
through RNA, to the protein. DNA is a container of genetic
information for most living beings. RNA sends this information further, and that’s why protein
synthesis is possible. The genetic information
has to be read from the DNA in a process
called transcription. The information is transcribed
to RNA through a variety of enzymes, for instance RNA polymerase,
depending on the DNA. RNA polymerase joins the promoter
away from the place where the transcription starts. RNA synthesis begins. Ribonucleotide join the 3′ end,
which is constantly extending. Complementary alkali join pairs, ensuring
the strand will have the correct sequence. The further RNA synthesis begins. RNA polymerase approaches the final
sequence where the transcription stops. RNA and polymerase detach themselves. As a result of the transcription
we have a precursor RNA, which is not fully functional yet. To function it needs a few modifications, and only then it can play its role. For example: during transcription
information about more than one particle of
ribosomal RNA could be delivered. That’s why a precursor ribosomal
RNA has to be torn to pieces. Most eukaryotes have so-called introns in their genes – non-coding
fragments of RNA. These fragments need to be removed. The egzons – fragments with genetic
information – have to be reconnected. That’s how we get fully
functional RNA that can be used in another
process: a translation. As a result we have proteins – the basic
building blocks of our organisms.

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