Why Take a DNA Test for Genealogy Research

– Great, so this session is called Why Take a DNA Test for Genealogy Research? My name is Mike Mansfield. I’m the director of content operations at MyHeritage. I’ve been working at MyHeritage now for five years. Prior to that I worked for Ancestry for nine years and Family Search for five as well. So I’m trying to work for all of the genealogy companies before I retire. I still have about 20 years to go to work for more of them. No, I’m really happy with MyHeritage. One thing if you saw the keynote yesterday is it’s great working for a CEO like Gilad who’s just super passionate about the work that we do. Very, very wonderful to have such an engaged CEO, it’s great. All right, so the outline of my talk today, we’re gonna talk about the different types of DNA tests that are available. We don’t sell some of these on MyHeritage. I’ll talk about where you can get some of these other specialty tests and also talk about the autosomal test in some detail. This is the main one that you’re hearing mostly about at conferences like this is the autosomal test. And we’ll look at inheritance patterns and strengths and weaknesses of these different tests and help you understand when and where you should use these. The second part, we’ll look at ethnicity estimates. I know there’s always a lot of questions about ethnicity estimates. And I’m gonna show you some information that I hope will be helpful to you. And then also as you speak to your friends and families and others that you associate with about ethnicity estimates. We’ll also talk about what I call fishing for genetic cousins and ancestors. And then we’ll look at the companies and their tests and specifically which companies accept transfers from which services. So if you’ve done an autosomal test you can often transfer that to other services for very little money, often free. And then we’ll look at an example of a focus study of how to use genealogy in quite an advanced way, but also sort of pointing to the future that we’re trying to help automate. And we’ll look at that in some detail. So let’s look at the DNA tests that are available. So the first one and the oldest one that really came to being in the genealogy market is the Y-Chromosome test. I’ll talk about each of these in more detail. The mitochondrial test, the X-chromosome test, the autosomal test, and then inheritance patterns, and so on. So when we look at the human genome we have 23 pairs of chromosomes. So chromosomes are kind of like shoes, right, they always come in pairs. So you can think about do I have 23 pairs of shoes, which means you have 46 individual shoes, right. Sometimes you talk about your shoes together as a pair and sometimes you might talk about them separately as single physical objects. But they’re always paired together. And so we have 23 chromosomes. The 23rd chromosome is called the X and the Y, and this is the chromosome that determines gender. So women have two X chromosomes, and men have an X and a Y. So if you look at the inheritance patterns for Y chromosome, so this is me here in the middle. My name is Mike or Michael. I was born in 1969 as it shows there. So my Y chromosome is inherited from my father who got it from his father, and et cetera up the line. So my Y chromosome, if my paper genealogy is correct, would come from a man in Surrey, England. So Y DNA tests can also determine what’s called a Y-Haplogroup. These haplogroups are really very ancient, they’re studies that have been undertaken by demographers and ethnographers to look at really ancient migration patterns, going back tens and tens of thousands of years. So when you take a Y DNA test, you’ll often get a number or a value expressed to you that’s called a Y-Haplogroup. And there’s some sites and services that you can go look at, and you can look up your Y-haplogroup. And they’ll have some articles there that might talk about some of the theories about how your haplogroup may have migrated to certain parts of the world, for example. For example, I’m a G2a; this is my Y-haplogroup. Whenever they find a mummy or an old well-preserved corpse they’ll go take a DNA sample. And I don’t know if you heard about this gentleman they found that had de-thawed from a glacier, I think in Switzerland. But he’s named Otzi the Iceman. And he’s a G2a, so he’s one of my very distant kin, I guess you could say. Richard III of England, he was discovered under a parking lot that they were preparing to do some construction on, and with some other genealogy work, they determined that this corpse was, in fact, Richard III of England, and he’s also a G2a. Joseph Stalin, maybe not the best person to have on my team. But this famous basketball player, Larry Bird, and then an American actor named Jake Gyllenhaal. So sharing a Y-haplogroup with these people, it doesn’t really tell me much as a genealogist. We have very, very distant genetic paternal relationship. It could be 100 generations ago. It’s really hard to say. Let’s next look at the mitochondrial DNA test. So in our cells, each of our cells have a couple hundred of these little structures called mitochondria. These mitochondria have a small ring of DNA that exists only within these mitochondrial structures. Most of the DNA that we’re talking about in the chromosomes, all that, X and the Y and the autosomal chromosomes are in the nucleus of the cell. Most of our cells in our bodies have nucleuses. There are some exceptions, such as red blood cells. Red blood cells are a very specialized form of cell that’s designed to squish into very small places and because of that evolutionary process it doesn’t have a nucleus. So when you hear about forensic science or police work that’s looking for blood samples, they are looking for blood, but they’re looking for the white blood cells. The white blood cells that we have in our blood do have a nucleus, and that’s where they get the DNA from that they test for forensic purposes. When we look at the mitochondrial DNA, then these tiny structures have these little rings of DNA. And there’s a test that you can do as a geneticist or a genealogist as well that looks at mitochondrial inheritance. So it’s exactly 16569 base paris, with 37 genes, been very well studied, as you can tell. Scientists seem to know quite a bit about this little ring of DNA that exists in our mitochondria. So just the opposite of how the Y DNA is inherited this is passed from mothers to her children. So mothers both to her daughters and to her sons. So my mitochondrial DNA would be a copy of my mother’s, which would come from her mother and et cetera down the maternal line. Again, if my paper genealogy is correct, my mitochondrial DNA would come from a woman here in Tromso, Norway long, long ago. Also with mitochondrial DNA you can get what’s called a mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. Just like the Y haplogroup, these very ancient migration studies have been done to determine these tens even hundreds of thousands of years ago these ancient migration patterns. Again, it’s not super helpful, these haplogroups for the work we do as genealogists because it’s such ancient unknown information. In my case, I’m a G2a; and a G in England, where my Y haplogroup comes from is quite rare. So about 2% of the men in England are a G haplogroup, so some of the reading that I’ve done suggests that G may have arrived in the British Isles with the Romans. There are varies of theories that go back quite a long time. Let’s also look at the X-DNA. So as we mentioned, the X and the Y chromosomes determine gender so all men have one X and women have two X chromosomes. So we can also do an X-DNA test. Let’s look at the inheritance pattern for the X chromosome. So this depends on if you’re a man or a woman. So as a man, in this example I’m showing myself as a man, my X-DNA would come from my mother. My mother’s X-DNA is likely a combination of that from her father and her mother. If my name were Michelle or if I was a woman, my two X chromosomes, one would come from my father and one would come from my mother following the inheritance patterns as I’m showing here. So let’s now look at autosomal DNA. So autosomal refers to chromosomes one through 22. When we talk about chromosomes in number, they’re usually numbered by scientists from the largest, being chromosome one, to the smallest being chromosome 22, with the exception of the Y chromosome. The Y chromosome is the smallest chromosome of them all, but it’s not part of the autosomal group. So again, in autosomal DNA we’re gonna be looking at chromosomes one through 22, excluding the X and the Y. So again, a little bit more about the human genome. So 23 pairs of chromosomes. An estimated at about 21000 genes. So genes are the expression that actually turn these base pairs, these bases in the DNA into amino acids and proteins that form structures in our bodies. There’s a lot of DNA that exists between the genes. Some scientists refer to this as junk DNA. It’s just DNA that’s there between the genes. They’re really not sure why it’s there. It probably happened through evolutionary processes as different genes were no longer used and they just became interstitial space or DNA between genes. So here are the number of genes that are known on chromosomes one through 22 as well as the X and the Y, about 21000. If we look at the base pairs, so when you think about the DNA molecule there are what are called nucleotides. And these are the little rungs of the DNA ladder. There’s approximately 3 billion of these nucleotides in the human genom. So about 3 billion base pairs. If you extract out the X and the Y we get about 2.86 billion, excuse me, that should say autosomal nucleotides. And what we’re looking for in DNA are what are called single nucleotide polymorphisms. That’s a big word for a scientific principle that geneticists have understood where only at certain places in our DNA do these rungs of the ladder change. They can be different between people. Most of our DNA is 99% the same. It’s these small differences in genes and also in these single nucleotide polymorphisms where these SNPs that make the DNA different. So the DNA tests that we take are specifically targeted at just these SNPs. There are 10 million that are thought to exist. The current tests are only testing about 700000. So of the 10 billion SNPs that are believed to exist, we’re only testing 7% in the test that we take today. So if we do the math, take 700000 and divide it by this 2.86 billion number, this means that we’re only looking at about .024% of your DNA when you take a test. In other words, 99.98% of your DNA is not examined in these DNA tests that we do as genealogists. So then autosomal inheritance pattern is basically everybody. I could inherit autosomal DNA from anyone in my tree. Now when you think about how autosomal DNA is passed down, so I get approximately 50% from my father and 50% from my mother, which means I’ll get 25% from my father’s father. That also means there’s 75% of my father’s father that I don’t get. So I’m only getting 25% of each of my grandparents here. And I’m getting 13% of each of my great-grandparents. So this leads to what we call genetic dilution. So as you look as the number of generations go back, you can see by the seventh or eighth generation the percentage of autosomal DNA that I’m likely to get becomes very, very small. In fact, it gets so small that statistically this is what starts to happen. So here we have generation one, two, three, four, five, six, seven. By generation six, it’s likely that about two to four of the ancestors at this level I’m not getting any of their autosomal DNA at all. At generation seven it jumps to about 12 to 16. So, for example, as I mentioned, my top line here is English. But this woman right here is Swedish. So in this theoretical example, pretend that I don’t have any of this English DNA right here that got all the way down to me. This could cause some weirdness in what I might think my ethnicity might be, right. If this is my only English line, and I think I’m English, my direct paternal line comes from England. But if I’m so diluted down here I don’t have any of that autosomal DNA, I’m not gonna get an expression of that in an ethnicity estimate. So autosomal DNA refers to the 22 pairs of chromosomes also called autosomes. A child inherits about 50% from their father and 50% from their mother. The tests of the autosomal DNA tests are done by analyzing hundreds of thousands of SNPs, the current test, like I mentioned, about 700000. These autosomal DNA tests are extremely useful, though, for hunting for genetic cousins. And I’ll show you an example of this in just a moment. In estimating how many generations have passed also to a common ancestor. And we’ll look at that in just a minute. This is also an important point. Not all cousins will share autosomal DNA. So if I come back to this picture. So I have five brothers, no sisters. So I may have a brother here that did get some of this autosomal DNA that would be in my father but maybe didn’t come to me. So even my own brothers can have different autosomal DNA than I do. Now we’re gonna be a lot similar, but there’s also gonna be some differences. And I believe I have an example that will illustrate that as well. So even with siblings and you go further out, cousins, second cousins will begin to have less and less common autosomal DNA. So an important thing to think about here is your genealogical tree, or the tree that we understand from researching and paper records, will not always be the same as your genetic tree. Your genetic tree is gonna have these gaps from the dilution that occurs. Autosomal DNA is also used to estimate ethnicity. Estimate ethnicity, I think I said that right. And these are also extremely useful for determining whether two people share a recent common ancestor. So let’s look at ethnicity estimates in a little bit of detail. So ethnicity estimates are percentages of a test-taker’s DNA determined by the various companies, algorithms, and data. And they use these models that have been talked about yesterday in some of the other classes to try to classify this autosomal DNA by continents, countries, or regions. I like to stress this. Currently we’re not calling these reports. These are estimates. And that carries some weight that I hope you’ll see in just a moment. Ethnicity prediction or estimation is still a young and developing science. So I think you’ll see some of the results that I’ll show you will be enlightening as well. So a test-taker’s autosomal DNA is compared to one or more reference populations. So each of the various testing companies had developed their own reference populations. Our reference populations at MyHeritage were chosen from our tree community. So we took our huge community of trees, and, for example, if we’re looking for a typical Scandinavian person to be representative of our Scandinavian ethnicity, and we did this many times. We’d look at their tree and say this person is 100% Swedish going back six generations. That would be a good candidate to ask them if they would take a test to participate in our reference population. So to some degree we’re also relying on how accurate these people’s trees are. If this person that we thought was 100% Swedish actually had 50% Russian, that would start to pollute our reference populations. And we hope that our samples are big enough that some of that error is gonna be diminished. So reference populations are sometimes called panels and are a very important aspect of ethnicity estimation. Each of the major companies have their own ethnicity panels or their own panels that they’ve developed. This is sort of the secret sauce that we all work on. So coming back to my seventh generation. So again this is me and my ancestors. Out here at this level I wanted to show you this example. So here at my seventh generation I have 64 ancestors at this level. So what I did is I took all of those 64 and I looked at where they were each born. So you can see in my example, 12 of them were born in Denmark, 10 in Norway, 10 in Sweden, 24 in England, Whales, or Scotland, two in Germany or Prussia, and then six in Colonial America, meaning I don’t know exactly where they came from before they arrived in the USA or the early British Colonies. Likely they were Danish or German or Dutch, excuse me Dutch or German or English. So this is what my paper genealogy says or my research genealogy. And all of these 64 people at that level were born between 1674 and 1819. But again, keep in mind this fact of genetic dilution. I won’t have DNA from all of these 64 ancestors out here. About 12, maybe even 16 of these I’d likely have none of. So with each of the tests that we could take at the companies, we’ll get a visualization that’s similar to this that you’ll see at MyHeritage. It’s got two components, sort of a little table of your results and then a graphical display that’s almost always overlaid on a map. So here’s my MyHeritage result, my ancestor result. I’ll show these to you in a table in just a moment so you don’t need to look too deeply at the data right here. By 23 and Me, my Living DNA result. So right here, here’s my tree. If my tree is correct, meaning this is my research, 50% Scandinavian, 12 northwest/central European, and 37% English; these are the results that I get. You’ll see, for example, that Family Tree DNA seems to not like Scandinavian DNA very much. Not sure why, but they like to put a lot here. I also don’t know that I have any Irish, but yet I’m getting a very strong result here in Ancestry. So you just see that the reference panels and the algorithms have a ways to go. Another interesting theme is you can take an autosomal DNA test like I took of my test at Ancestry and I transferred it to MyHeritage. I took an autosomal DNA test at MyHeritage and I transferred it to Family Tree DNA. So I added more columns to the table to show other results as well. I could add many other columns to this table. I’ve done done lots of other transfers of tests as well. Now I’ve done five tests. I don’t recommend this for most people. It’s kind of overkill. I did it so I could make this table and show it to us, so that was my intent. Another thing that’s interesting is MyHeritage, I guess I’m not surprised, as a company based in Israel, they like to think I’m Jewish but so does Ancestry, so that’s interesting. But they also think I’m Liberian. Ancestry, a little bit of Italian. And Living DNA thinks I also have some Italian. Which I don’t know that I have any of this down here. So you start to see some of the differences between the various companies. Again, it’s interesting to me that Family Tree DNA, both their own test and the test from MyHeritage that was transferred definitely don’t think I’m Scandinavian. Every conference that I go to I often get questions about what’s up with the ethnicity estimates? Why do they seem kinda funky? This company says this; this company says that. And one thing that I’d like to remind people is the regions that the scientists have developed for this have a lot of overlap. You’ll see that this region on MyHeritage we call North and West European goes way up onto Denmark. In fact it covers most of Denmark, and even parts of southern Sweden. Southern Sweden here is where Malmo is, and this is where many of my Swedish ancestors come from. So are my Swedes in Scandinavia or are they down here in this ethnicity of northwest European. Same thing with southern England. I have English relatives that are right down here near this border as well. So there’s overlap between these regions. And if I look at the Scandinavian overlap, you see that it also covers all of Denmark and much or northern Germany. So am I Scandinavian? Am I German? Sure, yeah. So the ethnicity estimates aren’t perfectly precise on modern boundaries and jurisdictions. And then as I’m sure you guys realize living here in Scandinavia that some of these places like Copenhagen and Malmo are very close to each other. There’s actually a bridge, road, tunnel, complex. You can drive between the two now. A few hundred years ago when my ancestors were in both of these cities it was probably a very short boat ride between the two major centers there. This is a heat map that I’m generating from MyHeritage. I’ll be giving a talk later this afternoon where I show how you can create these. But this shows the vital events from my tree here in Europe. So you can see I have a lot there in southern England, a whole bunch here in northern Norway, and then throughout southern Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. So this is what I’m trying to rectify between what my genealogy says and what these ethnicity estimates tell me. Generally for me it sounds like they’re pretty close. Now Family Tree DNA, I wouldn’t have been too happy with because I did think I had a strong Scandinavian component. So core concepts. An ethnicity estimate represents portions of our DNA that match one or more reference populations. These reference populations are collected from samples, statistical samples, from living people around the world. Each of the companies have differing ethnicity estimates because our algorithms are different and their reference panels are different. There’s other third party tools as well, such as GEDmatch. This is a website where I could do even more ethnicity estimates. I could upload my autosomal DNA tests to GEDmatch and produce probably a couple dozen other ethnicity estimates as well. So these can give us some useful information as genealogists as long as we bear in mind their limitations. So I’ve certainly met people who’ve taken a test and they’ve gotten an ethnicity estimate that definitely causes them to question, for example, who their father is. And I would say thinking about the title of this talk, it’s incredible how often I’ve met people who have discovered things through a DNA test that they were a little unprepared for or shocked by. Recently at a conference in Michigan I met a man who had raised a daughter. He was a single father most of his life. He just recently learned that his daughter is not his daughter. He was very cool about this. I was really impressed with his attitude. But that’s one thing that we need to be prepared with these test. Sometimes we’ll learn things that might surprise us and other family members. So the caveats; ethnicity estimates, though based on sophisticated algorithms and data collection are still estimates. Some estimates are genetically very similar to others. I know that there was some talk yesterday about French versus German estimate. That’s something that we’re trying to sort out right now. It’s a good practice to treat your ethnicity estimates with caution. If I look just at My Family Tree DNA results I could’ve maybe lit my hair on fire, but we can get beyond that I think. And then as I mentioned, each company will have different or slightly different, even significantly different results. So the question we also sometimes get: is it bad science? I like to think of it more as developing science. It’s got a long ways to go. I’m not trying to say the emperor has no clothes. He’s got some clothes on, but he’s not naked either. I think something as an industry that we can do better is helping users understand that these are gonna change, they’re gonna evolve. They’re gonna get better, we hope. They’re gonna improve. So if you get something that’s weird today, hold on, let’s see how we do and get better. Is it clever marketing? I don’t know about you, but living in the United States it’s really hard to watch TV and not see commercials by MyHeritage or Ancestry or 23 and Me that are almost exclusively focused on ethnicity estimates. One commercial I remember is this man forever thought he was German and then he learns that he’s Scottish. So he’s traded his lederhosen in for his kilt. (audience laughing) That type of thing. So is it clever marketing? I think the answer is absolutely yes. But I’m okay with it, because if it gets this man who thought he was German to think more about his family, to ask really serious questions, that’s wonderful. And if it brings them into the space, that’s great. So if we can get them with this gateway drug, I like to call it, this habit-forming drug that we’re all addicted to of genealogy, if a DNA test can interest your friends, your family members to wanting to participate with you in genealogy, I think that’s wonderful. So let’s look at autosomal DNA in our research or fishing for cousins and ancestors. So here’s an example of a match that I have on MyHeritage. And I’ve protected his identity because I haven’t gotten his permission. I haven’t asked him yet if I can use his example. But here’s this named Madsen and he lives here in Norway. And the match here on MyHeritage predicts that he’s a third cousin to perhaps a distant cousin. And right here if I click on this little bubble, I’ll get a chart specifically for this match that gives me some information about that. The other thing that I can see on this pane is that this gentleman has a very nice tree, almost over 5600 people in his tree. So this is something I definitely look for. If they don’t have a tree, it’s kind of hard to evaluate some of their data. Like I said, if I click on this little question bubble right here I’ll be brought to this chart where I can get this information about how the system is predicting I’m likely related to this person. So I’m here; he’s somewhere between my third cousin to perhaps my fifth cousin twice removed. So this is helpful. It kinda gives me a general understanding of his position potentially in my bigger tree. So one thing that I also do when I look at a match, coming back to the pane, if I review the DNA match here and scroll to the bottom, eventually I can see a portion of this man’s tree. So here’s this gentleman, Mr. Madsen, who lives here in Norway. And immediately what I do is I start looking through the tree to find family that I recognize. And I apologize. I have this box up; this box should be right here. This is the family that I recognize. This couple, this Andreas Rod Martinussen and Martha Marie Hannsdatter. So they immediately are recognized to me. So this is what this man has in his tree. And this person is not my direct ancestor. This is a brother to my direct ancestor and the same couple you see here. The only thing that does look odd is I have in my data that this woman was eight years older than the husband, which is a little weird; I mean, it can happen. But something I definitely wanna go and verify. So this is wonderful information to me because it kinda shows that this person here in Norway, we’re likely related through this couple here. Now I need to be careful because I could be related to this man a couple of ways. He could be my fourth cousin three different ways possibly. So I need to be careful to not just assume that I found one and only one man. So I need to spend some more time looking through his tree and understanding where his people were living and trying to eliminate if I’m likely to have just one and only one relationship. Another thing I can do to help me determine if this is only one relationship is I can look at him in our chromosome browser. So as I mentioned, I have five brothers. So when I put myself, myself’s assumed in a chromosome browser, and three of my brothers and this man from Norway, we all triangulate here on chromosome three. This is the only triangulation that we get, which is another piece of evidence that I’m likely related to this man through just this one ancestral couple. You’ll notice that I don’t have my other two brothers in here. And that’s because, like I mentioned earlier, two of my brothers don’t have this segment of DNA from Norway. So in my brother’s match list, this man from Norway doesn’t show up. So it’s also important to think about what matches are your siblings seeing or your cousins seeing that you are not. Something I’d love to see us add to the product would be ability to somehow get permission from, say, your sibling or your cousin to see all of their matches as they see them. You can do that now if you sponsor a test and you are the administrator of the test, but if someone else takes the test, then that’s something that’s hard to do. So when I look at his tree and my tree I can see that I’m here and he’s my fourth cousin once removed, if, in fact, I’m not related to him in more than one way. So let’s look at your testing options for autosomal. So you may come here and say what do I do next. One thing that I wanna do is I have about a 200-page manuscript that’s in Norwegian from this family where this gentleman and I share relations. I can’t read this thing. I’ve long wanted to make friends with a Norwegian who would be motivated to look at this very long document and to help me discover what’s in it. So I’m gonna write him very soon and see if he would be interested in engaging with me on this work. So that’s something I look forward to. But that’s the type of thing you can start to do with finding these distant relatives. I have photos, for example, of this man. I even think I have a photograph of this person, who is his shared ancestor. So again, other things that we can share, I’m sorry, don’t have a photograph of him. He was well deceased before photography. But I definitely have one of him. And I may have one of them together; I need to double check. Things like that, photographs, other documents, like I mentioned, other family histories that may exist you can begin to share and collaborate together. So let’s look at your testing options for autosomal DNA tests. So currently there’s six options that are available on the market. There’s MyHeritage, Ancestry, 23 and Me, Family Tree DNA, one of the newest companies that’s entered the market is Living DNA, and then the National Geographic Society has a test that they call the Geno2 Project. You often don’t hear about this one in the genealogy space. Most of their marketing efforts are towards people interested in purely ethnicity and demography type of work. You do see some advertising for it. I recently had a birthday, and this is what I wanted for my birthday. So my wife got me this test. I haven’t taken it yet. It should be there when I get home. So soon I’ll be able to include that in my charts. So the prices, normal prices that you’ll see for these are about 75 to 100. These are the retail prices. But it’s not uncommon to see these on sales or specials for about 59 to $80 U.S. So normal retail is about $75 to 100. But it’s common at sales or conferences to find them for around 59 to 80. If you wanna do a test other than autosomal tests, there’s really one company that you’re gonna look at and that’s Family Tree DNA. Some of their tests get quite expensive. For example, their Y DNA test, they have one that goes as high as $650. Their mitochondrial DNA test range between 79 and 200. And then they also have some other advanced tests like I mentioned like the X-DNA test. This one’s really rare. I’ve rarely encountered people that have taken an X-DNA test. But if that meets your genealogical purpose, it could definitely be helpful. They also have some fun, what they call factoid test. These are sort of gee whiz little things. You can take a test there at Family Tree to determine if you have wet or dry earwax. I don’t know why you wouldn’t already know that perhaps, but for $19 they’ll be happy to tell you. (audience laughing) Another thing you can do with an autosomal DNA test from really all of the testing providers is you can download a raw version of your data. So this is the top 20 or so data rows from my MyHeritage DNA test. So imagine a huge Microsoft Excel file that’s 700000 rows long. That’s what these look like. And so what this shows here on chromosome one, there’s what’s called an RSID. This is an ID used by geneticists to identify this single nucleotide polymorphism. Remember we talked about those. There’s about 10 million, but we only test about 700000. And then it’s position on chromosome one. And again, because our chromosomes come in pairs they’re giving me, let’s call it the left shoe, I have a T and on the right shoe or the other chromosome, the other allele, excuse me, I have a T. So I have T’s, A’s, G’s, and C’s. So it’s this big, huge dataset, and this is what you can download and upload to other services for additional work. So at MyHeritage we accept transfers so these data files, you can export. We accept transfers from 23 and Me, Ancestry, Family Tree DNA, and Living DNA. The data transfer for Living DNA was only completed about a month ago. So if you wanted to do a transfer like that, prior to about a month ago we didn’t support that, but we do now. Family Tree DNA supports transfers from the other major companies except Living DNA. And I believe they’re working on their upload process for that. Living DNA accepts transfers from the other four major companies in this space. Ancestry does not accept transfers from anybody nor does 23 and Me, with one exception. Earlier this year during what was called DNA Day they had one day and one day only when they accepted transfers. So I quickly transferred several of my projects to them and I could include them now in the graph or that table that I showed you. But normally you can’t transfer to 23 and Me. Once you have done an autosomal test, there’s other third party tools, such as GEDmatch, DNA GEDCOM, these are some pretty advanced websites that aren’t necessarily the most easy or intuitive things to use. You really get into genetic genealogy. These are things you’ll start to learn about and hear about and you can go to these services and do some interesting things. For example, like I mentioned at GEDmatch they have several specialized ethnicity analyzing tools and estimators. In the last few minutes I wanna give an example of a focused genealogical question. This was written about by Dr. Thomas Jones. He’s a very famous genealogist in the U.S. He sits on the boards of many of the major genealogical organizations. And he had this question that he’s been trying to solve for many years about one of his family. And he was finally able to solve it almost exclusively with the help of DNA. And I have permission from Dr. Jones to relay this to you. So Dr. Jones sits down here, and he had this information about his family. And he was trying to determine who or how this Nathaniel Greenfield, who are his parents. Who is the family that he comes from? So his question was who are the parents of this Nathaniel Greenfield that he knows about in his tree. After many decades, actually going from the 1980s and many hours of research, he found only three references to this gentleman. In the 1930 United States census, in an army enlistment record in New York, and to a court martial document also in the state of New York. But nothing else in these documents referenced anything about his family, who he was related to, to his parents were. So the process that Dr. Jones took is he tested about 12 of his known cousins. So cousins that he knows how he’s related to, he provided kits to them. So he’s building up a test pool of people that he believes are related to this Nathaniel Greenfield. Then after a lot of research, he identified a candidate couple. This is a bit kind of shooting in the dark a little bit. He identified this candidate couple that lived in New York in about the right time and the right place that had children that Nathaniel could be one of. And so his question that he was trying to answer is: is Nathaniel Greenfield one of the children of Thomas and Mary Walters? If he’s not one of the children, is he perhaps a brother to Thomas or a nephew? How is this Nathaniel Greenfield related to this other family? So Dr. Jones did some descendency research to determine about a dozen, I’m only showing a few here, but about a dozen descendants of this Thomas Greenfield and Mary Walters. And he supplied tests to them. So he had these two fairly large test pools, about a dozen on each side. And the DNA results came back and did show that Thomas Greenfield and the descendants of Nathaniel Greenfield shared DNA. In other words, these pools of cousins shared a lot of DNA, indicating a possible relationship there between Thomas and Nathaniel. And then in his analysis, five possible relationship could exist. They could be first cousins. They could be an uncle and nephew, full brothers, half-brothers, or father and son. And in this article he goes through some analysis with the DNA and shows us that Nathaniel was, in fact, Thomas’ son. So this is a very advanced sort of approach that was taken, not inexpensive, right, to supply all these tests. This is really where we’re trying to go with DNA and some of the stuff that was talked about yesterday with Gilad is our attempts to try to help automate this type of work. Where if we have enough tree data and we know how we’re related to our cousins and we get a match and we can see how that match relates to other people, we can start to do this type of new genealogical discovery that supplements what the paper records have sort of left us lacking. So this is really where the future is going. And if you wanna learn more about genetic genealogy I refer you to this wonderful site, the International Society of Genetic Genealogy. It’s abbreviated isogg.org. And there’s two nice blogs that I like to follow. It’s thegeneticgenealogist.com and yourgeneticgenealogist.com. There’s also some nice Facebook groups that are quite active. And definitely encourage you to definitely dive into these new tools. Genetic genealogy doesn’t replace the old research techniques that we’ve known and learned and loved. But it does add new tools that we can employ in our work. Some credits, again, thank you. My name is Mike Mansfield. Here’s my email address. If we don’t have time to speak today and you do have questions, please feel free to email me, thank you. Can we do some questions? (audience applause)

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